Maori leaders

Ordered by: 
Buck, Peter Henry
First Name: 
Te Rangi Hīroa
Birthdate Unknown: 
1877?
Died: 
1 Dec 1951
Biography: 

Peter Buck (1877?–1951), also known as Te Rangi Hīroa, was of the Taranaki tribe Ngāti Mutunga. He was educated at Te Aute College and the University of Otago Medical School, where he qualified as a doctor.

In 1905 he worked as a Māori medical officer, under another Te Aute graduate, Māui Pōmare. Buck and Pōmare joined forces to improve the sanitation of Māori settlements and the health of the Māori people. The more conservative Māori leaders often opposed them.

Buck, who was based in Northland, was unexpectedly elected to Parliament representing Northern Māori in 1909. He served on the Native Affairs Committee and was briefly in Cabinet as representative of the Māori people. He stood unsuccessfully for the general (European) Bay of Islands seat in 1914. This marked the end of his parliamentary career.

During the First World War he worked hard to encourage Māori to enlist. He served in the Middle East, Gallipoli and France as a medical officer. He was twice mentioned in dispatches and was made a DSO. By the end of the war he held the rank of major.

After the war Buck was appointed director of the Maori Hygiene Division of the Department of Health. The Māori death rate during the influenza pandemic of 1918 was five to seven times that of Europeans. Consequently, Māori leaders worked with medical authorities to stop the spread of infectious diseases, making Buck's task a little easier.

Later in life he lived mostly overseas, pursuing his interest in anthropology and writing on Māori culture and society. He was awarded honorary doctorates by a number of universities, including the University of New Zealand and Yale. He received a knighthood in 1946.

Adapted from the DNZB biography by M. P. K. Sorrenson

Te Rangi Hīroa

Ko Ngāti Mutunga o Taranaki te iwi o Te Rangi Hīroa (1877?–1951). I kuraina ia ki te Kāreti o Te Aute, ka puta i te Kura Tākuta o Ōtākou.

I te tau 1905 e mahi ana a ia hei āpiha hauora mō te Māori i raro i tētahi atu ākonga o Te Aute, a Māui Pōmare. Ka mahi tahi a Te Rangi Hīroa rāua ko Pōmare kia paru kore ngā kāinga, kia piki te hauora ki te iwi Māori. He rahi tonu ngā rangatira o te ao Māori kāore i rata ki ā rāua mahi.

E noho ana a Te Rangi Hīroa ki Te Tai Tokerau i te tau 1909. Tumeke katoa ia i tana pōtitanga hei Mema Pāremata Māori mō taua rohe. Ka uru a ia hei mema mō te Komiti mō ngā Take Māori, ā, mō tētahi wā poto ko ia tērā te kanohi mō te iwi Māori ki te rūnanga kāwanatanga. Ka tū a ia mō te rohe Pākehā o Pēwhairangi i te tau o 1914, hauwarea. Ko te mutunga tērā o tana whai i ngā tūranga ki te Pāremata.

I te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao ka whakapau kaha ia ki te whakahau i ngā Māori kia kuhu hei hōia. Ka haere a ia hei āpiha hauora ki Īhipa, ki Karipori, ki Wīwī. E rua ngā wā ka whakaingoatia a Te Rangi Hīroa i ngā tuhituhi ki ōna āpiha teitei mō tōna māia. Ka whakawhiwhia ia ki te tohu DSO. Tae rawa ki te mutunga o ngā riri kua kake a ia hei meiha.

I tana hokinga ki Aotearoa i te mutunga o ngā riri, ka tohungia a Te Rangi Hīroa hei kaiwhakahaere o te Wāhanga Hauora Māori o te Tari Hauora. E rima ki te whitu whakaraunga te tokomaha ake o ngā Māori i matemate i te urutā rewharewha o te tau 1918 tēnā i te tokomaha o ngā Pākehā. Whāia, ka mahi tahi ngā rangatira Māori me ngā āpiha hauora ki te tāmi i ngā urutā tērā ka pā; nā tēnei mahinga tahitanga, ka māmā ake ngā mahi a Te Rangi Hīroa.

I tōna pakeketanga ka noho ia ki tāwāhi i te nuinga o te wā ki te whai i te mātauranga tikanga tangata, ki te tuhi kōrero hoki mō ngā tikanga me te ahurea o te Māori. Ka whakawhiwhia ia ki te tohu tākuta hōnore e te Whare Wānanga o Aotearoa, e te Whare Wānanga o Yale, e wai atu, e wai atu. I te tau 1946 ka ūhia e taitara Tā ki runga i a ia. Nō te tau 1951 ka mate a Te Rangi Hīroa.

People: 
Ordered by: 
Balneavis, Hēnare Te Raumoa Huatahi
Surname: 
Balneavis
First Name: 
Hēnare Te Raumoa Huatahi
Birthdate: 
26 Mar 1880
Died: 
13 May 1940
Biography: 

Hēnare Balneavis, of Ngāi Tāmanuhiri and Whakatōhea, was born in Poverty Bay in 1880. He was educated at Te Aute College and later worked as a law clerk at Gisborne. In 1903 he began working as a clerk and interpreter in the Native Land Court.

In 1909 he became private secretary to Āpirana Ngata, and continued in this role when Ngata became Native Minister. He went on to serve as private secretary to a number of Native Ministers including W. H. Herries, Gordon Coates, George Forbes and M. J. Savage.

Because of his obvious talents Balneavis became a national figure. If not able to directly influence Ministers, he could at least keep them aware of Māori issues and concerns. He also took part in a Māori cultural revival. He was the first secretary of the Board of Maori Ethnological Research and the Maori Purposes Fund Board, which promoted research, traditional arts and craft, and the renovation of marae and meeting houses. Hēnare Balneavis died in 1940 at his office in Parliament Buildings.

Hēnare Te Raumoa Huatahi Balneavis 

I whānau mai a Hēnare Balneavis i te tau 1880 i Turanganui-a-Kiwa. Ko ōna iwi ko Ngāi Tāmanuhiri me Te Whakatōhea. I kuraina ia ki te Kāreti o Te Aute, kātahi ka mahi hei karaka ture i Tūranga. I te tau 1903 ka tīmata tana mahi hei karaka, hei kaiwhakamārama reo ā-waha mā te Kōti Whenua Māori. I te tau 1909 ka uru ia hei hēkeretari tūmataiti mā Āpirana Ngata. Ka kake a Ngata hei Minita mō ngā Take Māori, ka whai atu a Balneavis. Ka noho a ia hei hēkeretari tūmataiti mō te maha o ngā Minita mō ngā Take Māori pērā i a Te Hērihi (W. H. Herries), i a Te Kōti (Gordon Coates), i a Te Whōpi (George Forbes), i a Te Hāwiti (M. J. Savage), i a wai atu.

Nā te kitea māramatia o ōna pūmanawa ka hau te rongo mōna ki te motu. I taea e ia te whakamōhio atu ki ēnei Minita he aha ngā kaupapa nui me ngā āwangawanga o te iwi Māori. I tautoko ia i te whakaoranga o ngā tikanga me te ahurea Māori. Ko ia te hēkeretari tuatahi o te Poari Whakapapa me te Poari Tahua Take Māori. I tautoko tēnei poari i ngā rangahau, ngā mahi toi, te raranga, tae atu ki ngā mahi whakapaipai i ngā marae me ngā wharenui. Ka mate a Hēnare Balneavis i te tau 1940 i tōna tari i te Whare Pāremata.

People: 
Ordered by: 
Wahawaha, Rāpata
First Name: 
Rāpata
Surname: 
Wahawaha
Birthdate Unknown: 
?
Died: 
1 Jul 1897
Biography: 

Rāpata Wahawaha (?–1897) was a chief of the Te Aowera hapu (sub-tribe) of Ngāti Porou. Little is known of his early life, except that he was captured by Rongowhakaata (of Gisborne/Poverty Bay) in an inter-tribal conflict and later released.

In 1865, members of the Pai Mārire or Hauhau movement arrived on the East Coast, and this created conflict within Ngāti Porou. Wahawaha and most of his hapu opposed the Pai Mārire religion and sided with the government against its followers. He was an effective war leader, and distinguished himself by killing a Hauhau chief at Tikitiki. He also took vengeance on his former captors, who had joined the Hauhau cause. The Hauhau were finally defeated, and the Ngāti Porou tribe became government supporters. Wahawaha later led them against the Hauhau of Poverty Bay and Wairoa.

By mid-1866 the East Coast was mostly peaceful, but warfare broke out again in 1868 with the return of Te Kooti from the Chatham Islands. Wahawaha and his men fought a bitter campaign against Te Kooti and his Tūhoe allies. In a battle in December 1868 he won the New Zealand Cross for gallantry, and was promoted to the rank of major. Wahawaha assisted in capturing Te Kooti's pa at Ngātapa in January 1869. He then organised the execution of a number of prisoners, perhaps as many as 120, apparently with the support of European officers.

When fighting ceased in the Urewera in 1873, Wahawaha returned to the East Coast. He remained a staunch ally of the government and opposed the Repudiation movement, which aimed to overturn land transactions that were said to be dishonest.

In 1870 he was awarded a Sword of Honour by Queen Victoria in recognition of his war services, he later also received an annual pension. He became a government land purchase agent, encouraging his people to pass land through the Native Land Court and sell or lease it. In 1887 he was appointed to the Legislative Council. For the rest of his life he continued to encourage Ngāti Porou to cooperate with the government. He died at Gisborne in 1897.

Adapted from the DNZB biography by Steven Oliver

Rāpata Wahawaha

He rangatira a Rāpata Wahawaha (?-1897) o Te Aowera, hapū o Ngāti Porou. Kāore i te tino mōhiotia ana nekeneke i te wā o tōna tamarikitanga, i tua atu i te mea, i te wā o ngā riri ā-iwi, i mauherea ia e te iwi o Rongowhakaata; nō muri ka tukua kia hoki ki tōna iwi.

I te tau 1860 ka kuhuna Te Tai Rāwhiti e tētahi tira Pai Mārire (Hauhau rānei); i tana rongotanga, kei te noho tōtara wāhi rua a Ngāti Porou. Ka whakahē a Wahawaha me te rahi o tōna hapū i te whakapono Pai Mārire, ka whakawhirinaki kē ki te kāwanatanga. He kaingārahu, i hau te rongo mōna i tana patunga i tētahi rangatira Hauhau i Tikitiki. Ka whai utu hoki ia i te iwi o Rongowhakaata, kua huri hoki rātou hei Hauhau. Ka hinga ngā Hauhau, ka kūpapa a Ngāti Porou ki te kāwanatanga. Taro iho, ko Wahawaha te kaingārahu o Ngāti Porou ka rīriri me te Hauhau ki Tūranganui-a-Kiwa, ki Wairoa.

Kia tae ki te pokapū o te tau 1866, kua āhua mau te rongo ki Te Tai Rāwhiti. Heoi, ka pakaru anō te riri i te tau 1868, i te hokinga mai o Te Kooti mā i Wharekauri. Ka kino te whawhai i waenganui i a Wahawaha me ana toa, ki a Te Kooti me ana haumi o Tūhoe. I tētahi pakanga i te tau 1868 ka whakawhiwhia a Wahawaha ki te Rīpeka o Niu Tīreni mō te māia, ka kake hoki ia ki te tūranga o meiha. I te marama o Hānuere o te tau 1869, ko Wahawaha tētahi o ngā kaingārahu i te taua o te kāwanatanga nā rātou a Ngātapa – te pā o Te Kooti – i whakaeke. Nāna i whakarite kia patua ētahi mauhere kia mate, tērā pea 120 te rahi. Te āhua nei, i tautokona ana mahi e ngā āpiha Pākehā i reira i taua wā.

I te mutunga o ngā riri i Te Urewera i te tau 1873, ka hoki a Wahawaha ki Te Tai Rāwhiti. Ka pūmau tonu ia ki te kāwanatanga. I whakahē ia i te kaupapa Whakahētanga Hoko Whenua, e rapu ana kia huripokina ngā hokonga whenua i kīia rā he whānako.

I te tau 1870 ka whakawhiwhia ia ki tētahi penihana ā-tau me te Hoari Whakahirahira mai i a Kuini Wikitōria mō ana mahi i te wā o ngā pakanga. Ka tohungia ia hei āpiha hoko whenua a te kāwanatanga. Ka whakatenatena ia i te iwi kia heria ō rātou whenua ki mua i te Kōti Whenua Māori, kia taea ai te hoko, te rīhi rānei. I te tau 1887 ka tohungia ia ki te Kaunihera Ture. Kāore he mutunga o tana whakahau i tōna iwi o Ngāti Porou kia tautoko i te kāwanatanga. Ka mate ia ki Turanganui-a-Kiwa i te tau 1897.

People: 
Ordered by: 
Wahanui Huatare
First Name: 
Wahanui
Surname: 
Huatare
Birthdate Unknown: 
?
Died: 
5 Dec 1897
Biography: 

Wahanui Huatare, of Ngāti Maniapoto, was born in the late 1820s. Raised as a Christian, he also became a notable tohunga (Māori spiritual expert) and an influential chief.

In the 1850s he organised a mail service between Te Awamutu and Napier, and set up a system of tribal administration and law enforcement which was admired by John Gorst, the Waikato resident magistrate. Near the end of the 1850s Wahanui became opposed to further European settlement, and became a key figure in the growing King Movement. He fought in the Waikato war of 1863–64, and was wounded.

After the war Wahanui's diplomatic skills were in demand. In 1881 he spoke for the King when peace was finally made. He remained strongly opposed to land selling, but realising that European settlement within the King Country could not be prevented, he tried to limit and control the process of land alienation.

In 1883–84 Wahanui agreed to provide land for the main trunk railway. Premier Robert Stout had promised to make the King Country a "dry" area (free from alcohol). Stout had also assured Wahanui that the Native Land Court would be kept out of the district. Māori referred to this as a "compact". The government later either ignored the promise to exclude the Land Court, or denied that Stout had ever agreed to it. In the end, Wahanui's attempts to engage with the European system in a manner that preserved the authority and the land of his people ultimately proved unsuccessful. He died in 1897.

Adapted from the DNZB biography by Manuka Henare

Wahanui Huatare

I whānau mai a Wahanui Huatare i te paunga o te tekau tau atu i 1820. Ko Ngāti Maniapoto tōna iwi. He Karaitiana ia, he tohunga rongonui, he rangatira whai mana. I te tekau tau atu i 1850 ka whakatūria e ia tētahi kawenga mēra atu i Te Awamutu ki Ahuriri. Ka whakatūria hoki e ia ētahi tikanga, ētahi ture hei whai mā te iwi. Ka whakamihi te kaiwhakawā ā-rohe i Waikato a Te Koohi (John Gorst) mō tēnei kaupapa. Kia tae ki te paunga o te tekau tau atu i 1850 ka tīmata a Wahanui ki te ātete i te noho a te Pākehā. Whai anō he tūranga taketake tōna i te Kīngitanga, i te kaha nei tōna tipu. Ka whawhai, ka taotū ia i ngā riri i Waikato i te wā 1863-64.

I te mutunga o ngā riri, ka manakotia a Wahanui e te iwi mō tana tohungatanga ki te whakahaere me te whakatau take. I te kapinga o ngā riri i te tau 1881, ko Wahanui ka tū, ka whakatakoto kōrero mō te Kīngi. Ka mau tonu tana whakahē ki te hokonga whenua, heoi, kua mārama kē ia, e kore e tareka te aukati i te kuhu a te Pākehā ki te Rohe Pōtae. Ka ngana ia ki te āta whakahaere i te hokonga o ngā whenua.

I te wā 1883-84 ka whakaae a Wahanui kia tukua he whenua mō te rerewē matua. Ko te kī taurangi a te Pirimia a Rāpata Taute (Robert Stout), kāore e whakaaetia te waipiro ki te Rohe Pōtae, kāore hoki e whakaaetia te Kōti Whenua Māori me ana mahi kia kuhu ki te Rohe Pōtae. Kīia ai tēnei āhuatanga e ngā Māori he “whakaaetanga”. Nō muri ka hoki kōmuri te kāwanatanga, kāore ia i aro atu ki tana kī taurangi e mea ana e kore te Kōti Whenua Māori e kuhu ki te Rohe Pōtae mahi ai i ana mahi. I tua atu, i whakapae rātou kāore i whakaputahia e Taute ēnei kōrero. I te mutunga, hauwarea ngā mahi a Wahanui ki te pupuri i te mana me ngā whenua o tōna iwi. Ka mate ia i te tau 1897.

People: 
Ordered by: 
Tūhaere, Paora
First Name: 
Paora
Surname: 
Tūhaere
Birthdate Unknown: 
?
Died: 
12 Mar 1892
Biography: 

Paora Tūhaere, of the Auckland and Kaipara iwi (tribe) Ngāti Whātua, is thought to have been born in about 1825. He became a Christian early in his life, and was known as a peacemaker rather than a warrior.

In 1841 he was involved in bringing Governor Hobson and the capital from the Bay of Islands to the shores of the Waitematā Harbour, and in selling land for the growing town of Auckland. Although Ngāti Whātua did not support the Māori King Movement, they became more committed to holding what remained of their Auckland land by the 1850s.

In 1860 Governor Browne, anxious to isolate Taranaki Māori and the King Movement, convened a large hui (gathering) of "loyal" Māori at Kohimarama, near Auckland. The Governor emphasised the benefits of the Treaty of Waitangi for those Māori who were prepared to honour it. Most Māori present resolved to do nothing to oppose the Queen's authority, although they were concerned about Crown policy in Taranaki. Browne promised to hold the Kohimarama Conference every year as a forum where Māori could take an active role in the administration of the colony. Tūhaere played an important role at the conference, and described it as a ratification of the Treaty by those who had not signed or understood it in 1840. Some historians have referred to this reaffirmation of the Treaty as the "covenant" of Kohimarama.

Tūhaere became a leading senior chief of Ngāti Whātua when his uncle, Āpihai Te Kawau, died in 1868. He was appointed to a number of government positions, and started up a Pacific Islands trading venture by buying a schooner, the Victoria.

He later became deeply concerned at the government's failure to meaningfully include Māori in the administration of the colony, and the damaging effects of land loss and the Native Land Court. He saw the increasing political and economic marginalisation of Māori as a gross breach of the Treaty of Waitangi and the Kohimarama "covenant". Tūhaere responded to the government’s failure to reconvene the Kohimarama Conference by setting up a Māori Parliament at Orakei, near Auckland, in the late 1870s.

Colonial politicians generally ignored the Parliament's resolutions. Tūhaere frequently urged that tribal councils (rūnanga), rather than the Native Land Court, should manage and control the process of land title and land alienation.

He later became a leading figure in the Kotahitanga movement, whose aim was to abolish Māori land laws, implement the Treaty of Waitangi, and exercise a degree of Māori self-government. He died at Ōrākei in 1892.

Adapted from the DNZB biography by Steven Oliver

Paora Tūhaere

I whānau mai a Paora Tūhaere i te takiwā o te tau 1825. Nō te iwi o Ngāti Whātua o Tāmaki-makau-rau, o Kaipara. E tamariki tonu ana a Tūhaere ka iriiria. Ka puta te rongo mōna hei rangatira whakatau i te riri, kāpā hei toa i roto i te pakanga. I te tau 1841 ko ia tētahi i pōwhiri i a Kāwana Hopihona kia neke i tōna tāone matua mai i te Pēwhairangi ki ngā tahatika o Te Waitematā; ko ia hoki tētahi ka hoko whenua kia tipu ai te tāone o Ākarana. Ahakoa te mea kāore a Ngāti Whātua i whirinaki atu ki te Kīngitanga, ka kaha haere tō rātou ātete i te hokonga whenua i te tekau tau atu i 1850.

I te tau 1860, nā runga i tana māharahara kei whai kaha ngā iwi o Taranaki me te Kīngitanga, ka karangahia e Kāwana Browne tētahi hui nui mō ngā kūpapa Māori ki Kohimarama, tata ki Ākarana. Ka whakanuia e te Kāwana te Tiriti o Waitangi mō aua Māori ka pūmau ki te Tiriti. Ahakoa tō rātou āwangawanga mō ngā mahi a te Karauna ki Taranaki, kīhai te nuinga o ngā rangatira i ātete ki te mana o te Kuini. Ka puta te kōrero a Browne, ka tū te hui o Kohimarama ia tau kia whai wāhi ai ngā rangatira Māori ki ngā whakahaere o te koroni. He tūranga nui tō Tūhaere ki roto i te hui; ko tāna i titiro ai, he whakapūmautanga tēnei hui o te Tiriti mō te hunga kāore i haina, mō te hunga kāore hoki i te mārama ki ngā kōrero o te Tiriti i te tau 1840. Kīia ai tēnei āhuatanga e ētahi tumu kōrero, ko te “kawenata” o Kohimarama.

I te matenga o tōna matua kēkē a Āpihai Te Kawau i te tau 1868 ka matika a Tūhaere hei rangatira mō Ngāti Whātua. Ka tohungia ia ki ētahi tūranga a te kāwanatanga. Ka tīmata tana tauhokohoko ki ngā moutere o Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa i tana hoko i tētahi kaipuke, ko Victoria te ingoa.

Ka tipu tōna pōuri i te kore whakarite a te kāwanatanga kia whai wāhi nui te Māori ki ngā whakahaere o te koroni, tāpae atu ki ngā mahi hao whenua a te Kōti Whenua Māori. Ki tāna titiro, he takahitanga o te Tiriti o Waitangi rāua ko te “kawenata” o Kohimarama ngā pēhitanga tōrangapū, ohaoha i te Māori. I te paunga o te tekau tau atu i 1870, ka whakatūria e Tūhaere tētahi Pāremata Māori ki Ōrākei, e tata ana ki te tāone o Ākarana, hei urupare ki te whakakorenga ake a te kāwanatanga i ngā hui nui ki Kohimarama.

Kāore i arongia e ngā kaitōrangapū Pākehā ngā whakatau a te Pāremata Māori. Ka whakahau a Tūhaere, mā ngā rūnanga o ngā iwi kē e whakahaere ngā hokonga whenua, kaua mā te Kōti Whenua Māori.

Whāia, ka tū a Tūhaere hei kaiārahi o te Kotahitanga, e whai ana kia whakakāhoretia ngā ture whenua Māori, kia mana te Tiriti o Waitangi, kia noho ki te Māori te mana whakahaere i a ia, ki ētahi taumata. Ka mate ia ki Ōrākei i te tau 1892.

People: 
Ordered by: 
Te Rangitopeora
Surname: 
Te Rangitopeora
Birthdate Unknown: 
?
Died Unknown: 
1865-1873?
Biography: 

Te Rangitopeora (also known as Rangi Topeora), of Ngāti Toa and Ngāti Raukawa, was born at Kawhia early in the nineteenth century. Her hapū (sub-tribe) were Ngāti Kimihia and Ngāti Te Maunu. She was a niece of the great Ngāti Toa leader Te Rauparaha, and a sister of the formidable warrior Te Rangihaeata.

As a young woman she was a famous composer of waiata, and many of her songs are still sung today. In the early 1820s she migrated south to Kapiti Island and adjacent mainland districts with her people, to escape the growing conflict with other Waikato tribes. Her actions during this turbulent migration, and once her people arrived in the south, marked her as a leader and a woman of great strength.

In May 1840 the missionary Henry Williams brought the Treaty of Waitangi to Kapiti Island. Te Rangitopeora was one of an estimated five to thirteen women to sign the Treaty. When her brother Te Rangihaeata became involved in armed conflict with British troops and settlers in 1846 she became an opponent of the government. She remained an important figure among her people and a notable orator. Later she was reconciled to European settlement.

When Bishop Selwyn baptised her at Ōtaki she insisted on taking the name Kuini (after Queen Victoria), and her husband was named Albert, after Prince Albert, the Queen's husband. She was later commonly known as the "Queen of the South".

Te Rangitopeora died some time between 1865 and 1873 at Otaki. Her son, Mātene Te Whiwhi, took a leading role in the establishment of the King Movement during the 1850s.

Adapted from the DNZB biography by Teremoana Sparks and W. H. Oliver

Te Rangitopeora

I whānau mai a Te Rangitopeora ki Kāwhia i te tōmuatanga o te rautau rua tekau. Ko ōna hapū ko Ngāti Kimihia, ko Ngāti Te Maunu; ko Ngāti Toa, ko Te Āti Awa ōna iwi. Hei irāmutu a ia mā Te Rauparaha, rangatira o Ngāti Toa, hei tuahine hoki mā te toa rā a Te Rangihaeata. He wahine rongonui a Rangi Topeora mō te tito waiata, ā, kei te waiatatia tonutia ētahi i ēnei rā. I te tekau tau atu i 1820, i runga i ngā riri ki ērā o ngā iwi o Waikato, ka heke a Rangi Topeora rātou ko tōna iwi ki te rohe o Kapiti noho ai. Ka puta tōna rangatiratanga, tōna kaha i te wā o te heke, i te taunga hoki ki Kapiti.

I te tau 1840 ka mauria e Te Karuwhā te Tiriti o Waitangi ki Kapiti. Ko Te Rangitopeora tētahi o ngā wāhine e 5-13 ka haina i te Tiriti. I te tau 1846 ka pakanga a Te Rangihaeata ki ngā hōia o Peretānia, ka tautokona ia e tana tuahine. He wahine whai mana a Te Rangitopeora, he pū kōrero. Kia hipa te wā, ka rata a ia ki te noho mai a te Pākehā.

Nā te pīhopa nā Te Herewini (Bishop Selwyn) a ia i iriiri ki Ōtaki. Ka tangohia e Te Rangitopeora te ingoa o Kuini Wikitōria hei ingoa tāpiri mōna, ka huri te ingoa o tana tāne ki Arapeta, te tāne a te Kuini. Whāia, ka utaina ki runga ki a ia te ingoa te ‘Kuini o te Tonga’.

Nō te takiwā o ngā tau 1865 ki 1873 i mate ai a Te Rangitopeora ki Ōtaki. Hei tōna wā ka whai wāhi nui tana tama a Mātene Te Whiwhi ki te whakatūnga o te Kīngitanga i te tekau tau atu i 1850.

People: 
Ordered by: 
Tomoana, Hēnare
First Name: 
Hēnare
Surname: 
Tomoana
Birthdate Unknown: 
?
Died: 
20 Feb 1904
Biography: 

Hēnare Tomoana, of Ngāti Kahungunu and Ngāti Te Whatu-i-āpiti, was born in the 1820s or early 1830s in Hawke's Bay. Little is known of his early life, except that he grew up during the conflict of the "musket wars".

In 1851 he joined in selling large blocks of land to Donald McLean, the government land purchase commissioner. He remained an enthusiastic land-seller well into the 1860s, partly because he was often in debt.

Tomoana supported the government during the wars of the 1860s, and joined the campaign against Te Kooti in 1868. He and his men served with distinction. Tomoana achieved the rank of captain of militia, and received a Sword of Honour from Queen Victoria. But he was not paid for his military service, and had to provide equipment for his own men. His debts grew, and he had to sell more land.

Because Tomoana was unhappy about earlier land sales, he supported the Repudiation movement in the 1870s. This sought to cancel a large number of Hawke’s Bay land transactions which it claimed were dishonest. A commission of inquiry was appointed in 1873, but did not take any action. Instead it reported that it was acceptable to apply extreme pressure to Māori landowners who were heavily in debt.

Disappointed, Tomoana then became fully committed to the Repudiation movement. Perhaps his greatest contribution was to support the newspaper Te Wananga, a bi-lingual mouthpiece of the movement.

In 1879 Tomoana was elected to the House of Representatives as the member for Eastern Māori. He worked with Hōne Mohi Tāwhai (the member for Northern Maori) on the Native Committees Bill in 1881 and 1882. This aimed to cut back the power of the Native Land Court, and give Māori a chance to decide on land titles themselves. But the government watered down the Bill, and it proved ineffective when it was passed in 1883.

Tomoana was defeated and replaced in Parliament by Wī Pere in 1884. He then returned to Hawke's Bay, where he remained a stern critic of government Māori policy. In 1891 he told the Native Land Laws Commission (the Rees–Carroll Commission) that the settler-dominated Parliament had done great injustice to Māori, who should be able to make their own laws and administer their own lands. He later joined the Kotahitanga movement, whose aims were implementation of the Treaty of Waitangi, abolition of the land laws, and a degree of local autonomy through a Māori Parliament. Henare Tomoana died in 1904.

Adapted from the DNZB biography by Angela Ballara

Hēnare Tomoana

I whānau mai a Hēnare Tomoana i te tekau tau atu i 1820, i te tōmuatanga o te tekau tau atu i 1830 rānei, ki Te Matau a Māui. Ko Ngāti Kahungunu rāua ko Ngāti Te Whatu-i-āpiti ōna iwi. Kāore i te mōhiotia ngā nekeneke o Tomoana i tana tamarikitanga, i tua atu i te mea i pakeke ia i te wā o ngā “pakanga mau pū” i waenganui i ngā iwi.

I te tau 1851 ko ia tērā kei te hoko poraka whenua nui ki a Te Mākarini (Donald McLean), te kōmihana hoko whenua a te kāwanatanga. Ka hīkaka a Tomoana ki te hoko whenua, tae rawa ki te pokapū o te tekau tau atu i 1860, nā te nui pea o ana nama.

Ka tautoko a Tomoana i te kāwanatanga i ngā riri o te tekau tau atu i 1860, ā, i te tau 1868 ko ia tērā kei roto i ngā pakanga ki a Te Kooti. Ka puta ngā kōrero mō tō rātou māia ko ana toa. Ka kake a Tomoana ki te tūranga o meiha i te rōpū hōia ā-iwi, ka whakawhiwhia a ia ki te hoari whakahōnore mai i a Kuini Wikitōria. Ko te mate kē, kāore ia i utua mō ana mahi hōia, i tua atu, nāna tonu i hoko ngā taputapu mō ana toa. Ka piki haere ana nama, ka mate ia ki te hoko whenua anō.

Nā tana kawa ki ngā hokonga whenua tōmua, ka huri a Tomoana ki te tautoko i te rōpū Whakahētanga Hoko Whenua i te tekau tau atu in1870. Ka whai tēnei rōpū kia whakakāhoretia ngā hokonga whenua maha i Te Matau a Māui, i whakapae ai rātou he hokonga whānako. Ka whakatūria tētahi kōmihana hei rangahau i te take i te tau 1873, engari kāore he putanga. Ko te tohu kē a te kōmihana, e pai ana te āta tāmi i ngā Māori he nui ā rātou nama, e taea noatia ai te tango i ō rātou whenua.

Ka paheke te wairua o Tomoana, ko tana ruku hōhonu tērā ki ngā kaupapa a te Whakahētanga Hoko Whenua. Ko tana mahinga nui rawa pea mō te rōpū, ko tana hāpai i te nūpepa Te Wānanga, he nūpepa reo rua.

I te tau 1879 ka pōtitia a Tomoana hei Mema Pāremata Māori mō Te Tai Rāwhiti. I ngā tau 1881, 1882, mahi tahi ai rāua ko Hōne Mohi Tāwhai (Mema Māori mō Te Tai Tokerau) ki te hāpai i te Pire Whakamana i ngā Komiti Māori, e aru nei kia kotia te mana o te Kōti Whenua Māori, kia whakahokia ki te Māori te mana whiriwhiri taitara mō ō rātou whenua. Heoti, ka whakawaimehatia e te kāwanatanga te Pire, ā, i tōna whakamanatanga i te tau 1883 kāhore ōna kiko.

Nō te pōti o 1884 ka hinga a Tomoana ki a Wī Pere. Ko tana hokinga tērā ki Te Matau a Māui. Ka rite tana whakahē i ngā kaupapa here a te kāwanatanga e pā ana ki te Māori. I te tau 1891 ka takoto tana kōrero ki mua i te aroaro o te Kōmihana Ture Whenua Māori (te Kōmihana a Rees-Carroll), mō ngā hē i puta ki te Māori i ngā mahi a te kāwanatanga kī ana i te Pākehā. Ko tāna, me tuku mā te Māori anō e hanga ture māna, mā te Māori anō hoki ōna ake whenua e whakahaere. Nō muri ka kuhu ia ki te Kotahitanga e aru ana kia whakamanatia te Tiriti o Waitangi, kia whakakāhoretia ngā ture whenua Māori, kia riro mā te Māori anō āna whakahaere i raro i tētahi Pāremata Māori. Ka mate a Hēnare Tomoana i te tau 1904.

People: 
Ordered by: 
Tohu Kākahi
Surname: 
Kākahi
First Name: 
Tohu
Birthdate: 
22 Jan 1828
Died: 
4 Feb 1907
Biography: 

Tohu Kākahi (?–1907), of the Taranaki tribe Te āti Awa, was born during the period of great turmoil known as the 'musket wars'.

Like his relative and fellow prophet Te Whiti o Rongomai, also of Te Āti Awa, he was said to have been regarded early in life as a teacher and prophet. Later he gained a deep knowledge of Christian doctrine.

It is claimed that Tohu confirmed Pōtatau Te Wherowhero's son Tāwhiao as the second Māori King, and was for a time his spiritual advisor. Tohu was also said to have participated in the Taranaki wars of the 1860s, but by the mid-1860s he had, like Te Whiti, decided to pursue peaceful but firm resistance to European incursion and the loss of land.

By most accounts Tohu moved after the Taranaki wars to the Parihaka settlement where, with Te Whiti, he led the people. Parihaka became a centre of peaceful resistance and a rallying point for many Māori. Acute Māori discontent focussed on land confiscation and the government's failure to set aside promised reserves.

In 1879 the government began to survey 16,000 acres of the confiscated Waimate Plain without setting aside Māori reserves. In response, Māori, led by Te Whiti and Tohu, began ploughing land occupied by settlers, and building fences across roads that cut through their cultivations. Arrests followed, but the pace of protest continued to grow. Many tribes throughout New Zealand provided the Parihaka people with food and other supplies during this time, trekking from their homes to the settlement. These expeditions became a phenomenon of the Taranaki coast, much to the annoyance of government officials.

On 5 November 1881 a force of almost 1,600 Armed Constabulary and volunteers, led by Native Minister John Bryce mounted on a white stallion, invaded Parihaka. The Māori inhabitants, numbering about 2,000, offered no resistance, greeting Bryce and his men with bread and song. They were dispersed and Tohu and Te Whiti were arrested. The settlement was then systematically wrecked by the soldiers, and Māori tradition speaks of brutality and rape.

Tohu and Te Whiti were charged with 'wickedly, maliciously, and seditiously contriving and intending to disturb the peace'. They were held without trial, and were not released until 1883, when they returned to the ruined Parihaka settlement and began to rebuild it. They continued to lead peaceful Māori protest. Unlike some others at Parihaka, Tohu refused to be influenced by European ways. He advised his people to stay out of debt and away from European vices such as drink. He denounced taxes, which he believed were charged unfairly against the Parihaka people.

Tohu died in February 1907. Te Whiti died a few months later.

Adapted from the DNZB biography by Alisa Smith

Tohu Kākahi

Nō te iwi o Te Āti Awa o Taranaki a Tohu Kākahi (?-1907). I whānau ia i te wā o ngā pakanga mau pū a ngā iwi. Pērā i tōna huānga a Te Whiti, i puta i a Tohu ngā tohu o te matakite. Ka mau hoki i a ia te hōhonutanga, te whānuitanga o te whakapono Karaitiana. Ko te whakapae, nā Tohu a Tāwhiao, te tama a Pōtatau Te Wherowhero, i whakawahi hei Kīngi tuarua, ā, ka noho a ia hei kaitohutohu i a Tāwhiao mō te taha wairua. E mea ana hoki te kōrero i kuhu a Tohu ki ngā riri i Taranaki i te tekau tau atu i 1860. Heoi, pērā i tana huānga a Te Whiti, ka whai a Tohu i te ara o te mautohe mārire ki te kuhu a te Pākehā me te rironga o ngā whenua.

Ko te kōrero a te nuinga, nō muri i ngā riri o Taranaki ka neke a Tohu ki Parihaka. Ko rāua ko Te Whiti ngā kaiārahi o te iwi ki reira. Whāia, ka hau te rongo i te iwi Māori mō Parihaka hei pokapū mō ngā mautohe mārire, hei wāhi whakakotahi i te Māori. Ka nui ngā āwangawanga o te iwi Māori mō ngā whenua i raupatutia, mō te takahi a te kāwanatanga i ana kī taurangi e mea ana ka rāhuitia he whenua mō te Māori.

I te tau 1879 ka tīmata te kāwanatanga ki te rūri i ngā whenua e 16,000 eka te rahi i raupatutia i Waimate, kāore i rāhuitia he whenua mō te Māori. Hei utu mō tēnei, ka ārahina e Te Whiti rāua ko Tohu ā rātou tāngata ki te parau i ngā whenua kei te nōhia e ngā tāngata whai, ki te whakatū taiepa haukoti i te huarahi o te Pākehā. Ka whiua ētahi o rātou ki te whare herehere. Ahakoa tērā, ka nui haere ngā mautohe. Ka tukua mai he kai, taputapu, aha noa ki Parihaka e ngā iwi puta noa i Aotearoa. Ka nui te hunga i takahi i te huarahi mai i ō rātou kāinga kia tae ki Parihaka. He mea rerekē ki ngā Pākehā tēnei te haerenga atu o te tini Māori, hōhā pai ana ngā āpiha a te kāwanatanga.

I te rā 5 o Nōema o te tau 1881 ka urutomokia a Parihaka e ngā Pirihimana Mau Pū me ngā tūao 1600 te rahi hui katoa, i raro i ngā whakahaere a te Minita mō ngā Take Māori, a Te Paraihe, i runga i tōna tāriana mā. Kāore i ātetetia tā rātou kuhu atu e ngā Māori e 2000 pea te rahi. Kua hora te parāoa mā rātou, e waiata ana te iwi. Tē arohia atu. Ka wāwāhia ngā kāinga, ka tutea te iwi kia marara. Ka mauherea a Te Whiti rāua ko Tohu. Kei reira ngā kōrero tuku iho mō ngā tūkinotanga a ngā hōia, tae atu ki te pāwhara i ngā wāhine.

Ka whakapaetia a Tohu rāua ko Te Whiti mō te “whakatutū puehu i runga i te kino me te ngākau waniwani”. Ka mau rāua ki te whare herehere, kāore he whakawākanga. Nō te tau 1883 kātahi anō rāua ka tukua. Taro ake, ka hoki rāua ki te whakatū anō i a Parihaka. Ka arataki tonu rāua i ngā mautohe mārire. Kāore a Tohu i whai i ētahi ka hiahia kia whakaurua ngā taputapu papai a te Pākehā ki Parihaka. Ko tana tohutohu ki ana pononga, kaua e nui te nama, kaua hoki e pā atu ki ngā taonga kino a te Pākehā pērā i te waipiro. Kāore ia i whakaae ki te tikanga tāke, i runga i tana whakapae kei te utaina te tāke nui rawa atu ki runga i te iwi o Parihaka.

Nō te marama o Pepuere o te tau 1907 a Tohu i mate ai. Kāore i pau te tau ka mate a Te Whiti.

People: 
Ordered by: 
Tītokowaru, Riwha
First Name: 
Riwha
Surname: 
Tītokowaru
Birthdate Unknown: 
?
Died Unknown: 
1888
Biography: 

Tītokowaru, of the south Taranaki tribe Ngā Ruahine, was born in about 1823. He grew up in the shadow of the ‘musket wars’, and is said to have received formal training as a tohunga (Māori spiritual expert).

Later he learned to write in Māori, and he became a Christian in the early 1840s. In the 1850s, his opposition to land-selling led him to support the King Movement (Kīngitanga). An enthusiastic advocate of the prophetic Pai Mārire religion, he lost an eye in battle in 1864.

In 1867 Tītokowaru began to campaign for peace, holding a series of large hui (gatherings). He renounced his connection with the Kīngitanga, called for peaceful resistance, and even accepted the loss of some confiscated land. As the historian James Belich notes, Tītokowaru’s peace was in many respects as remarkable as his later war. But his hopes for reconciliation were dashed by the government's ‘creeping confiscation’. By 1868, Ngā Ruahine faced a stark choice: war or starvation.

Tītokowaru began a campaign of plunder without bloodshed. Government forces responded by seizing stolen goods and taking prisoners. When Tītokowaru refused to return an escaped prisoner, war broke out in earnest.

Despite being heavily outnumbered Tītokowaru won several stunning victories. He was both an extremely talented military engineer and a master of tactics. By early 1869 he had won back 110 km of territory between the Waingongoro and Whanganui rivers. His force grew from 150 to around 1000, and he gained the tacit support of the King Movement. His victories almost brought the colony to its knees, and the government considered returning confiscated land. But at the height of his success Tītokowaru’s army mysteriously fell apart. He seems to have lost his mana, perhaps through committing adultery with the wife of one of his chiefs. As Belich remarks, Tītokowaru lost his war but the government can hardly be said to have won it.

The government left Tītokowaru alone, and he became a strong supporter of the pacifist prophets Te Whiti and Tohu at Parihaka. When creeping confiscation began again in 1878, he helped to organise a campaign of non-violent resistance.

In 1881 Parihaka was invaded by a force of almost 1600 armed constabulary and volunteers, led by Native Minister John Bryce. They destroyed the settlement and imprisoned Tītokowaru for eight months. After his release he remained committed to peace but continued to protest against the confiscations. He was imprisoned again in 1886, despite his age and poor health. He died in August 1888. Belich describes him as arguably one of the best generals New Zealand has ever produced.

Adapted from the DNZB biography by James Belich

Riwha Tītokowaru

I whānau mai a Tītokowaru i te takiwā o te tau 1823. Ko Ngā Ruahine o Taranaki tōna iwi. I pakeke ia i te ata o ngā pakanga mau pū. E ai ki te kōrero, i akongia a ia hei tohunga. Nō muri ka ako ia ki te tuhi ki te reo Māori. Ka iriiria ia hei Karaitiana i te tōmuatanga o te tekau tau atu i 1840. Heoi, i te wā 1850 ki 1854, nā tana whakahē ki te hokonga o ngā whenua, ka tautoko a Tītokowaru i te Kīngitanga. Nō ngā riri o 1860-61 ka whakaaturia e ia ngā tohu o te kaingārahu. Ka kuhu hoki ia ki ngā riri i Waikato; i reira ka pura tōna kanohi katau.

I te tau 1867 ka tīmata te whakahau a Tītokowaru i te rangimārie, ka tū ana “hui nui mō te rangimārie”. Ka wetekina e ia ōna hono ki te Kīngitanga, ka karanga ia kia mautohe mārire te iwi. Ka whakaae ia ki te raupatunga o ētahi o ngā whenua, engari kaua ko te katoa. E ai ki te kōrero a te tumu kōrero a James Belich, he rite te mīharo mō te rangimārie o Tītokowaru, ki te mīharo mō te riri o Tītokowaru ka whai iho. Heoi, nā te “āta raupatu” a te kāwanatanga i te whenua, ka pau tana hau ki te kimi huarahi mārire. Tatū ki te tau 1868, e rua ngā whiringa kei mua i a Ngā Ruahine: ko te ara o te riri rānei, ko te mate i te kore kai rānei.

I te tīmatanga, ka murua e Tītokowaru te mahi a te taonga, heoi kāore i maringi te toto. Ka whakautua ēnei mahi e ngā hōia a te kāwanatanga, ka murua ngā taonga i whānakohia, ka kawea ētahi o te iwi hei mauhere. I te kore whakaaetanga atu a Tītokowaru kia tukua e ia tētahi mauhere, kātahi ka mumura ngā ahi o te riri.

Ahakoa te nui o te hoariri, ka puta rā te ihu o Tītokowaru i ngā pakanga. Kātahi tētahi tohunga hanga maioro, tohunga rautaki pakanga, ko Tītokowaru. Kia tae ki te tōmuatanga o te tau 1869 kua riro mai anō i a Tītokowaru tētahi whenua e 80 maero te roa (e 129 kiromita) i te tonga o Taranaki, atu i te awa o Waingongoro ki te awa o Wanganui. Ka nui haere ana toa mai i te 150 ki te 1000; ka tautokona mai ia e te Kīngitanga. Tata tonu ka hinga te koroni i a ia, ka whakaaro te kāwanatanga kia whakahokia ētahi whenua i raupatutia. Heoi, i te wā e kaha rawa ana a ia, nā te aha rā, ka waimeha tana taua. Tērā pea nā tana mahi pūremu me te wahine a tētahi o ana toa. Hei tā Belich, nā tōna ringa tonu a Tītokowaru i hinga ai, kāpā nā te ringa o te kāwanatanga.

Ka waihotia a Tītokowaru e te kāwanatanga, ka kaha haere tana tautoko i ngā poropiti mautohe mārire o Parihaka, a Te Whiti rāua ko Tohu. I te tīmatanga anō o ngā raupatunga whenua i te tau 1878, ka āwhina ia i ngā mautohe mārire.

I te tau 1881 ka whakaekea a Parihaka e ngā pirihimana mau pū me ngā tūao 1600 te rahi hui katoa, i raro i ngā whakahaere a Te Paraihe (John Bryce), te Minita mō ngā Take Māori. Ka pāhuatia, ka wāwāhia a Parihaka, ka mauherea a Tītokowaru mō te waru marama. Ka tukua ia, ka mau tonu ia ki te kaupapa mautohe mārire mō ngā whenua raupatu. Ahakoa tōna kaumātua me tōna tino pāngia e te mate, i te tau 1886 ka whiua anōtia ia ki te herehere. Ka mate ia i te marama o Ākuhata o te tau 1888. Ko te kōrero a Belich mōna, tērā pea ko ia tētahi o ngā tino kaingārahu i te hītori o Aotearoa.

People: 
Ordered by: 
Tiramōrehu, Matiaha
First Name: 
Matiaha
Surname: 
Tiramōrehu
Birthdate Unknown: 
?
Died: 
7 Apr 1881
Biography: 

Matiaha Tiramōrehu (?–1881) was born at Kaiapoi pā, into the Ngāi Tūahuriri hapū (sub-tribe) of Ngāi Tahu. After Kaiapoi was captured by Te Rauparaha in 1831 he joined the taua (war party) led by his father Karaki. They carried out retaliatory raids, and Tiramōrehu is said to have been wounded.

He later settled at a southern whaling station at Moeraki. In 1843 he joined the Wesleyan faith.

In 1848 Tiramōrehu was involved in the Canterbury purchase – a vast area of about 20 million acres (8 million hectares). He later took a leading role in protests over the purchase. H. T. Kemp, the government land purchase agent, had breached promises made at the time of the sale, and the reserves (later made – by Mantell) for Māori were miserly – 10 acres (4 hectares) per person.

In 1879, because of the unceasing protests of Tiramōrehu and other Ngāi Tahu rangatira (chiefs), the Smith–Nairn Commission was set up to investigate the grievances. Tiramōrehu gave evidence to the Commission in 1879 and 1880. The government terminated the Commission before it produced a final report. Tiramōrehu died at Moeraki in 1881.

Adapted from the DNZB biography by Harry C. Evison

Matiaha Tiramōrehu

I whānau a Matiaha Tiramōrehu (?-1881) i te pā o Kaiapoi. Ko Ngāi Tūahuriri te hapū, ko Ngāi Tahu te iwi. I te whakaekenga o Kaiapoi e Te Rauparaha i te tau 1831, ka kuhu ia ki te taua o tōna matua a Karaki. Kawea ai e rātou te riri ki a Ngāti Toa; e ai ki te kōrero i taotū a Tiramōrehu. Whai muri iho ka noho ia ki tētahi teihana patu tohorā i Moeraki i te tonga. I te tau 1843 ka kuhu ia ki te Hāhi Wēteriana.

I te tau 1848 koia tērā ko Tiramōrehu i whai wāhi ki te hokonga o ngā whenua o Waitaha – e 20 miriona eka (e 8 miriona heketea) te rahi. Nō muri ka ārahina e ia ngā whakahē ki taua hokonga. Ko H.T. Kemp te āpiha hoko whenua a te kāwanatanga. Ka takahia e ia ētahi kī taurangi i puta i te wā o te hokonga, ka mutu, iti noa iho ngā pito whenua i rāhuitia (nā Mantell ēnei i whakarite i muri mai) ki te Māori – 10 eka (e 4 heketea) ki tēnā, ki tēnā tangata.

I te tau 1879, nā ngā tohetohe a Tiramōrehu me ētahi atu rangatira o Ngāi Tahu, ka whakatūria te Kōmihana a Smith rāua ko Nairn hei arotake i ngā nawe o Ngāi Tahu. Ka tuku kōrero a Tiramōrehu ki mua i te aroaro o te Kōmihana i ngā tau 1879, 1880. Heoi, ka kotia ngā mahi a te Kōmihana e te kāwanatanga i mua i te tāpaetanga o tana pūrongo. Ka mate a Tiramōrehu ki Moeraki i te tau 1881.

People: 
Ordered by: 
Te Whiwhi, Hēnare Mātene
First Name: 
Hēnare Mātene
Surname: 
Te Whiwhi
Birthdate Unknown: 
?
Died: 
28 Sep 1881
Biography: 

Hēnare Mātene Te Whiwhi (?–1881) was of Ngāti Raukawa and Ngāti Toa. As a young man he lived through the turmoil of his people's migration to the Cook Strait region. This may have formed the major theme in his life – to preserve peace.

In 1839 he travelled to the Bay of Islands seeking a Christian missionary for his people. As a result Octavius Hadfield later settled at Waikanae. In 1840 Te Whiwhi signed the Treaty of Waitangi, brought south by another missionary, Henry Williams.

In the mid-1840s Te Whiwhi himself became a missionary among the Ngāi Tahu people of the South Island. In 1847 he was took part in selling Ngāti Toa's Wairau lands to the government. At this time Te Rauparaha was held captive – without charge or trial. Some historians claim that the land sale was a ransom for his freedom, rather than a genuine sale.

In the 1850s Te Whiwhi began to push for a Maori King as a way to protect remaining Māori lands. However, he favoured peace and moderation. When war broke out in the 1860s his main goal was to keep the violence away from Ngāti Toa's lands. He was even prepared to cooperate with the government to achieve this. As W. H. Oliver notes, his final aim - peace - drove him into the arms of the government. He died in 1881.

Adapted from the DNZB biography by W. H. Oliver

Hēnare Mātene Te Whiwhi

Ko Ngāti Toa rāua ko Ngāti Raukawa ngā iwi o Hēnare Mātene Te Whiwhi (?-1881). I ngā rā o tana ohinga ko ia tērā ka heke me te iwi ki ngā rohe i ngā tahatika o Te Moana o Raukawa. Nā ana kitenga pea i tērā wā ka toko ake te take nui mā Te Whiwhi, ā, mate rawa, arā, te hohou i te rongo.

I te tau 1839 ka haere ia ki Pēwhairangi ki te rapu i tētahi mihinare Karaitiana mō tōna iwi. Ka whakaae a Te Harawira (Octavius Hadfield) ko ia ka haere ki te hāpai i ngā mahi mīhana. Whāia, ka tū te kāinga o Te Harawira ki Waikanae. I te tau 1840 ka haina a Te Whiwhi i te Tiriti o Waitangi, i kawea ki te tonga e tētahi atu mihinare, e Te Karuwhā (Henry Williams).

I te pokapū o te tekau tau atu i 1840, i te mahi mīhana a Te Whiwhi ki roto i a Ngāi Tahu i Te Waipounamu. I te tau 1847 ko ia tērā ka whai wāhi ki te hokonga o ngā whenua o Ngāti Toa i Te Wairau ki te kāwanatanga. I tenei wā, kua mauherea a Te Rauparaha kāore he whakapae, kāore he whakawākanga. Ko te kōrero a ētahi tumu kōrero, ehara taua hokonga i te hokonga pono, he whakaritenga kē e tukua ai a Te Rauparaha.

I te tekau tau atu i 1850 ka tīmata tana hāpai i te whakatū o tētahi Kīngi mō te iwi Māori, hei pupuri i ngā whenua e toe tonu ana ki te Māori. Hāunga tērā, ka pūmau ia ki te ara hūmārie. I te pakarutanga mai o ngā riri i te tekau tau atu i 1860, ka ngana a Te Whiwhi ki te ārai atu i te riri, kei eke ki ngā whenua o Ngāti Toa. E ai ki a A. H. Oliver, nā tana ngana kia mau te rongo a Te Whiwhi i whakawhirinaki atu ai ki te kāwanatanga. Nō te tau 1881 a ia i mate ai.

People: 
Ordered by: 
Te Whiti-o-Rongomai III, Erueti
First Name: 
Erueti
Surname: 
Te Whiti-o-Rongomai III
Birthdate Unknown: 
?
Died: 
18 Nov 1907
Biography: 

Erueti Te Whiti Te Whiti-o-Rongomai III (died 1907) was born into Te Āti Awa, a Taranaki iwi, during the turmoil of the 'Musket Wars'.

It is said he was identified as a teacher and prophet early in life, and much care was taken to ensure his safety. His stature in the Māori traditional world was augmented by a deep knowledge of Christian doctrine.

Te Whiti was said to have taken part in the Taranaki wars of the 1860s, but by the mid-1860s he had decided to pursue peaceful resistance to European incursion and the loss of land.

One tradition has it that Te Whiti and his people first moved to the inland village later known as Parihaka in the 1840s, to escape the social and economic pressures of coastal life. Other sources say he began living there in the 1860s after the Taranaki wars and subsequent land confiscations. In any event Parihaka became a centre of peaceful resistance and a rallying point for many Māori. Parihaka was led by Te Whiti and his relative and fellow prophet Tohu Kākahi. The main focus of Māori discontent was land confiscation and the government's failure to set aside promised reserves.

In 1879 the government began to survey 16,000 acres of the confiscated Waimate Plain without setting aside Māori reserves. In response, Māori, led by Te Whiti and Tohu, began ploughing land occupied by settlers. Arrests followed, but the pace of protest continued to grow. Parihaka became a symbol for many Māori, and its people received food and other supplies from tribes throughout the country and as far away as the Chatham Islands.

On 5 November 1881 a force of almost 1600 Armed Constabulary and volunteers, led by Native Minister John Bryce, invaded Parihaka. The Māori inhabitants, numbering about 2,000, put up no resistance. Instead they greeted Bryce and his men with bread and song. They were dispersed and Te Whiti and Tohu were arrested. The soldiers then systematically wrecked the settlement, and Māori tradition speaks of brutality and rape.

Te Whiti was charged with 'wickedly, maliciously, and seditiously contriving and intending to disturb the peace'. Held without trial, he was not released until 1883, when he returned to the ruined Parihaka settlement. Te Whiti and Tohu continued to lead peaceful Māori protest, and Te Whiti was imprisoned again for six months in 1886. In 1892 the West Coast Settlement Reserves Act brought in a system of renewable leases to settlers on more than 200,000 acres of Māori land. In response, Māori persisted with ploughing campaigns. In 1897, 92 Māori were arrested for ploughing in protest at delays in resolving the grievances over the Native Trustee's management of these leases.

Te Whiti and Tohu died within a few months of each other in 1907. The white albatross feather, which Te Whiti’s followers adopted as a symbol protecting the mana of the Parihaka settlement, remains an enduring emblem among Te Āti Awa.

Adapted from the DNZB biography by Danny Keenan

Te Whiti-o-Rongomai

Ka whānau mai a Te Whiti (?-1907) i te wā o ngā pakanga mau pū i waenganui i ngā iwi. Ko tōna iwi ko Te Āti Awa o Taranaki. E ai ki ngā kōrero, e tamariki tonu ana a Te Whiti ka puta i a ia ngā tohu o te matakite, o te poropiti. I āta manaakitia ia e tōna iwi. I tua atu, he tangata matatau ia ki te whakapono Karaitiana; kātahi ka nui atu ngā rongo kōrero mōna i te ao Māori. E ai ki te kōrero, i roto a Te Whiti i ngā riri ki Taranaki i te tekau tau atu i 1860. Heoti, tae rawa ki te pokapū o taua tekau tau, kua huri kē ia ki te mautohe mārie ki te tomo mai o te Pākehā me te rironga o ngā whenua.

Tērā tētahi kōrero e mea ana i whakatūria te kāinga o Parihaka e Te Whiti mā i te tekau tau atu i 1840, hei wāhi haumaru i ngā whakararu ki takutai. Tērā tētahi atu kōrero e mea ana, nō muri rawa i ngā riri me te raupatunga whenua o te tekau tau atu i 1860, ka tū tōna kāinga i Parihaka. Ahakoa he aha, ka tipu a Parihaka hei pokapū mō ngā mautohe mārie a te iwi Māori. Ko Te Whiti rāua ko tōna pāpā a Tohu Kakahi ngā kaiārahi. Rite a Tohu rāua ko Te Whiti, he matakite. Ko te take nui ki te iwi Māori ko ngā whenua i raupatutia me te kore tutuki i te kāwanatanga tana kī taurangi mō ngā whenua ka rāhuitia mō te Māori.

I te tau 1879 ka tīmata te kāwanatanga ki te rūri i te whenua raupatu e 16,000 eka te rahi i ngā mānia o Waimate. Kāore i rāhuitia he wāhanga o tēnei whenua mō te Māori. Hei utu mō tēnei, ka tīmata a Te Whiti rātou ko Tohu, ko te iwi ki te parau i ngā whenua kei te nōhia e te Pākehā. Ka mauherea ētahi. Hāunga tērā, ka nui haere ngā mautohe, ka tū a Parihaka hei tohu whakakaha i te tini o te iwi Māori. Ka tukua mai e tēnā iwi, e tēnā iwi he kai, tae rawa ki Wharekauri.

I te rā 5 o Nōema o te tau 1881 ka whakaekea a Parihaka e ngā Pirihimana Mau Pū me ngā tūao e 1600 te rahi; ko tō rātou kaiārahi ko te Minita mō ngā Take Māori, a Te Paraihe (John Bryce). Kāore i ātetetia tō rātou kuhu e te iwi o Parihaka e 2000 pea te tokomaha. Ka horahia ngā kai mā Te Paraihe me tōna ope, ka waiatatia rātou. Kia ahatia. Whakamararatia ana te iwi, mauheretia ana a Te Whiti rāua ko Tohu. Wāwāhia ana te kāinga o Parihaka. Kei te mau tonu ngā kōrero tuku iho mō ngā mahi whakarihariha a ngā hōia, tā rātou tūkino i ngā wāhine.

Ka ūhia ngā whakapae ki runga i a Te Whiti mō te "whakatutū i te puehu i runga i te kino, i te ngākau waniwani". Ka mauherea ia, hāunga te mea kāore anō kia tū he whakawākanga. Nō te tau 1883 ka tukua ia. I tana hokinga kua pākarukaru katoa a Parihaka. Ka ārahi tonu a Te Whiti rāua ko Tohu i ngā mautohe mārire, whai anō i te tau 1886 ka whiua anōtia a Te Whiti ki te whare herehere mō te ono marama. Nā te Ture Whakatau Papa Rāhui o te Tai Hauāuru o te tau 1892, ka tareka e ngā tāngata whai te whakahou i ā rātou rīhi i runga i ngā whenua Māori e 200,000 eka. Hei ātete i te ture nei, ka haere tonu ngā mautohe mārire a ngā Māori. I te tau 1897, e 92 ngā tāngata Māori i mauherea mō te parau whenua; i mautohe nā te takaroa o te whakatau i ō rātou nawe mō ngā whakahaere a te Kaitiaki Māori i ngā rīhi nei.

Nō te tau 1907 i mate ai a Te Whiti rāua ko Tohu. Ko te raukura toroa te tohu a ngā pononga o Te Whiti e whakaū ana i te mana o Parihaka, e mau tonu nei i roto o Te Āti Awa i ēnei rā.

People: 
Ordered by: 
Te Wherowhero, Pōtatau
First Name: 
Pōtatau
Surname: 
Te Wherowhero
Birthdate Unknown: 
?
Died: 
25 Jun 1860
Biography: 

The first part of Te Wherowhero's adult life was spent almost constantly at war as his Waikato tribe drove Te Rauparaha's Ngāti Toa out of its Kāwhia homeland, defended its own land against repeated attacks from Northland's Ngā Puhi and made repeated attacks on the Taranaki tribes. 

Te Wherowhero refused to sign the Treaty of Waitangi but did deal with the colonial government. He sold land to the Crown and, in 1849, signed an agreement to provide military protection for Auckland. He advised Governors George Grey and Thomas Gore Browne, but he also strongly protested against a British Colonial Office plan to put all uncultivated land into Crown ownership.

In the 1850s, a movement was set up to appoint a Māori king who would unite the tribes, protect land from further sales and make laws for Māori to follow. Te Wherowhero became King in 1858. Though he didn't see his kingship as a direct challenge to the authority of the Queen, it was seen that way both by the colonial authorities and some of his supporters. He died after only two years as King and was succeeded by his son, Tāwhiao.

Adapted by Jean Sergent-Shadbolt from DNZB biography by Steven Oliver

Pōtatau Te Wherowhero

Ko te wehenga tuatahi o ngā rā o Te Wherowhero hei pakeke, ko ana pakanga i te wā o te pananga o Ngāti Toa me Te Rauparaha e Waikato, kia wehe atu i Kāwhia. Ka tū mārō hoki tōna iwi ki ngā kōkiri mai a Ngā Puhi, ā, ka hokia tonutia ngā ara pakanga e ōna ope taua ki runga o Taranaki.

Kāore rawa a Te Wherowhero i whakaae ki te haina i te Tiriti o Waitangi, engari i whiriwhiri tahi ia ki te Kāwanatanga o te Koroni. I hokona e ia ētahi whenua ki te Karauna, ā, i te tau 1849, ka hainatia tētahi kirimana kia riro māna ngā Pākehā o Tāmaki-makau-rau e tiaki ki ōna ope taua. He kaha tonu ia ki te tohutohu i ngā Kāwana nei, i a Hori Kerei rāua ko Koa Parāone, engari i whakahē ia ki ngā tikanga a te Tari o ngā Koroni kia whaowhia katoatia ngā whenua kāore i kōia hei māra ki roto i ngā ringaringa o te Karauna.

I te tekau tau mai i 1850, ka korikori te iwi ki te whakatū kīngi Māori, māna ngā iwi hei whakakotahi, hei tiaki kia kaua e ngaro ō rātou whenua te hoko, māna hoki e hanga ture tōtika mō te iwi Māori. Ka pōtaea a Te Wherowhero hei kīngi i te tau 1858. Ki te titiro a Te Wherowhero, ehara te kīngi Māori i te hoa tauwhāinga mō te Kuini, engari ia ngā mana o te Koroni me ētahi o ana kaitautoko, i rerekē ngā whakaaro. I mate a Te Wherowhero e rua tau i muri o tōna pōtaetanga, ā, ka piki tana tama, a Tāwhiao, hei kīngi.

People: 
Ordered by: 
Te Wheoro, Wiremu Te Morehu Maipapa
First Name: 
Wiremu Te Morehu Maipapa
Surname: 
Te Wheoro
Birthdate Unknown: 
?
Died: 
30 Oct 1895
Biography: 

Wiremu Te Wheoro (?–1895) was a chief of Ngāti Naho, a Waikato hapū (sub-tribe) closely associated with Ngāti Mahuta. At a great hui (gathering) in 1857 which proposed that Te Wherowhero become the Māori King, Te Wheoro spoke in favour of the Governor.

In 1862 he was made an assessor - a local Māori magistrate who worked with the European magistrate in resolving disputes among Māori. In 1853 he attempted to build a courthouse for John Gorst, the local European Resident Magistrate, and clashed with the King's supporters. He could not prevent many of his younger tribesmen from joining the King when war broke out in 1863, but still helped deliver food and other supplies to British forces during the Waikato campaign. Later he acted as a go-between for the government and the Kīngitanga (the King Movement) leaders, and tried hard to achieve peace. But the land confiscations placed an insurmountable barrier between the parties, and he was unsuccessful. His efforts to achieve redress for his own people, whose land had also been confiscated, also failed.

In 1865 Te Wheoro became an assessor of the Native Land Court. He later resigned from this position. He was disgusted by what he saw as the corruption of the Court, which in his view awarded land titles to Māori who were more disposed to sell the land. In 1879 he was elected to Parliament, representing Western Māori. He continued to attack the Native Land Court, and remained a stern critic of government policies toward Māori. In an 1882 debate on the Native Lands Rating Bill he accused the government of racial hypocrisy and blatant land-grabbing.

Te Wheoro accompanied King Tāwhiao to England in 1884, where they tried to appeal directly to Queen Victoria for the redress of grievances, including the Waikato land confiscations. They were received not by the Queen, but by Lord Derby, the Secretary of State for the Colonies. Te Wheoro told Lord Derby that the government had not returned confiscated land, nor paid compensation. He described his disillusionment with the New Zealand Government, and Māori political powerlessness. The complaints were referred back to the New Zealand Government, which dismissed them.

While he was in London Te Wheoro lost his seat in Parliament, and his claims at Maungatautari were ignored by the Native Land Court. Te Wheoro continued to oppose government Māori policy until his death in 1895.

Adapted from DNZB biography by Gary Scott

Wiremu Te Wheoro

He rangatira a Wiremu Te Wheoro (?-1895) o Ngāti Naho, hapū o Waikato. He pānga tō Ngāti Naho ki a Ngāti Mahuta. I tētahi hui nui i te tau 1857 i karangahia hei tohu i a Te Wherowhero hei Kīngi Māori, ka tū a Te Wheoro ki te tautoko i te Kāwana. I te tau 1862 ka tohungia ia hei āteha, arā, he kaiwhakawā Māori ka noho me tētahi kaiwhakawā Pākehā ki te whakatau i ngā tautohetohe i waenganui i ētahi Māori. I te tau 1853 ka tīmata tana hanga i tētahi whare kōti mō Te Koohi (John Gorst), te kaiwhakawā ā-rohe; ka rīriri rātou ko ngā tāngata o te Kīngitanga. Ka pakaru ngā riri i te tau 1863. Tē taea e Te Wheoro te ārai i ana toa kia kuhu ki ngā ope taua a te Kīngi. Heoi, ka harihari kai tonu ia mā ngā hōia Pākehā i ngā pakanga ki Waikato. Nō muri i ngā pakanga, ka noho ia hei takawaenga i waenganui i te kāwanatanga me ngā rangatira o te Kīngitanga; heoi, nā te raupatunga o ngā whenua, hauwarea atu ngā mahi whakamārire a Te Wheoro. Ka tahuri ia ki te rapu paremata mō ngā whenua o tōna hapū i raupatutia; kāore i arongia ēnei tono āna.

I te tau 1865 ka tohungia a Te Wheoro hei āteha mā te Kōti Whenua Māori. Taihoa, ka whakawātea ia i tēnei tūranga, nā tana mōrikarika ki ngā mahi kino a te Kōti. Ko tana whakapae, kei te whakawhiwhia e te Kōti ngā taitara whenua ki ngā Māori kei te hiahia ki te hoko i te whenua. I te tau 1879 ka pōtitia a Te Wheoro ki te Pāremata hei Mema Māori mō Te Hau-ā-uru. Ka arohaehae tonu ia i te Kōti Whenua Māori me ngā kaupapa here a te kāwanatanga e pā ana ki te Māori. I tētahi tautohetohe i te Whare Pāremata i te tau 1882 mō te Pire Reiti Whenua Māori, ka whiua e ia tana whakapae mō te kāwanatanga, he arero rua, he apu whenua.

I te tau 1884, ka haere a Te Wheoro ki Ingarangi i te taha o Kīngi Tāwhiao, ka tono tika ki a Kuini Wikitōria kia ea ngā nawe o te Māori, tae atu ki ngā whenua o Waikato i raupatutia. Kāore rātou i tūtaki ki te Kuini, ka tūtaki kē rātou ki a Rōre Tāpiri (Lord Derby), te Hēkeretari mō ngā Koroni. Ka whakatakoto e Te Wheoro i ngā nawe ki mua i a Rōre Tāpiri mō ngā whenua raupatu kāore anō kia whakahokia, mō te paremata kāore anō kia utua. Ka whakaatu ia kua kore ia e whakapono ki te kāwanatanga o Aotearoa, kāore hoki he mana tōrangapū o te Māori. Ka tukua e Peretānia ēnei nawe ki te kāwanatanga o Aotearoa hei whakaarotanga ake mā rātou; kāore i paku arongia.

I a ia i Rānana, ka riro tōna tūru i te Pāremata, i tua atu, kāore i arongia e te Kōti Whenua Māori ana kerēme mō Maungatautari. Ka whakahē tonu a Te Wheoro i ngā kaupapa here a te Kāwanatanga mō te iwi Māori tae rawa ki tōna matenga i te tau 1895.

People: 
Ordered by: 
Te Waharoa, Wiremu Tāmihana Tarapipipi
First Name: 
Wiremu Tāmihana Tarapipipi
Surname: 
Te Waharoa
Birthdate Unknown: 
?
Died: 
27 Dec 1866
Biography: 

Tāmihana, born around 1805, was of Ngāti Hauā, of the Tainui confederation. As a young man he took part in several war expeditions. Through the influence of A.N. Brown, a Church Missionary Society missionary at Matamata, he quickly learned to read and write in Māori.

After his father died in 1838 he became an influential chief of his tribe, and later resisted pressure to continue fighting with neighbouring tribes. He practised Christian beliefs, within a traditional Māori framework.

In 1838 he began building a new village at Te Tāpiri. The rules of the settlement followed the Ten Commandments, and by 1839 about 300 people lived there. The church at Te Tāpiri was said to hold 1,000 people. A number of Waikato chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840, but Tāmihana and several others did not, although they were not hostile towards settlers.

In the early 1850s Tāmihana established another Christian settlement at Pēria. It included a post office, school house and flour mill, and was administered by a rūnanga (tribal committee or council). It soon became busy and prosperous. John Gorst, the Waikato Civil Commissioner, was particularly impressed with Ngāti Hauā social and political organisation, which he attributed to Tāmihana's influence.

Like many other Māori, Tāmihana became concerned at growing European encroachment, land sales, and the government's failure to support Māori social and political structures. He believed that a pan-tribal movement - uniting all tribes - would not only protect against European settlement, but also develop its own system of laws and maintain peace among the tribes. Tāmihana took a leading role in forming the King Movement (Kīngitanga) and the election of Pōtatau Te Wherowhero as the first Māori King. Accordingly he became known as ‘Kingmaker’. When Te Wherowhero was confirmed as King in May 1859, Tāmihana placed a Bible over his head. This became a ritual which Tāmihana's descendants still perform.

Tāmihana became deeply involved in the King Movement, and helped set up a Māori-language newspaper. When war broke out in Taranaki in 1860 he acted as mediator. But the government remained suspicious of his motives, and hostile to the Kīngitanga. Some Waikato men fought alongside the Taranaki ‘rebels’, although Tāmihana and others tried to dissuade them. Governor Browne seized on this to accuse Waikato of violating the Treaty of Waitangi, and demanded their submission. In reply, Tāmihana wrote that the King Movement did not conflict with the British Queen's authority: King and Queen could exist together, with God over both.

In 1863 Governor Grey ordered a British army to cross the Mangatāwhiri River and invade the lands of the Kīngitanga. A number of hard-fought battles followed as the skillfully prepared Māori defensive lines were overwhelmed or outflanked. Fighting did not end until the Waikato tribes withdrew into Ngāti Maniapoto territory - which became known as the King Country. The conflict then moved to Tauranga. Tāmihana took a leading role in seeking redress in the wake of the war and the massive land loss that followed. He died in 1866.

Tāmihana was a remarkable man, whose vision of peace and prosperity for his people was disrupted by a conflict not of his making.

Adapted from the DNZB biography by Evelyn Stokes

Wiremu Tāmihana Tarapipipi Te Waharoa (the 'Kingmaker')

I whānau mai a Tāmihana i te takiwā o te tau 1805. Ko Ngāti Hauā te iwi, ko Tainui te waka. I tana ohinga ka kuhuna ia ki ngā ope taua o tōna iwi. He mihinare a A. N. Brown nā te Rōpū Hāhi Mihinare. Ka mahi ia ki Matamata. Nāna a Tāmihana i ako ki te pānui me te tuhi i roto i te reo.

I te matenga o tōna matua i te tau 1838 ka nui ake te tūranga o Tāmihana. Whāia, ka ātete ia i ngā whakahau kia kawea te riri ki ngā iwi noho tata. Ahakoa tana huri hei Karaitiana, i ū tonu ia ki tōna ao Māori.

I te tau 1838 ka tīmata tana hanga kāinga hou ki Te Tāpiri. Ka whai ngā ture o tōna kāinga i ngā Whakahau Tekau. Tatū rawa ki te tau 1839, e 300 tāngata e noho ana i reira. E ai ki ngā kōrero, ka taea e te whare karakia o Te Tāpiri te 1000 tāngata. I haina ētahi o ngā rangatira o Waikato i te Tiriti o Waitangi, engari anō a Tamihana me ētahi atu, ahakoa tō ratou ngākau mārie ki ngā tāngata whai.

I te tekau tau atu i 1850 ka whakatūria e Tāmihana tētahi atu kāinga Karaitiana ki Pēria. He poutāpeta, he whare kura, he mira wīti ki reira, ā, ko te rūnanga te kaiwhakahaere o te kāinga. Kāore i roa ka hua te pai ki Pēria. Ka mihi a Te Koohi, te Kaiwhakahaere Kāwanatanga ki Waikato, mō ngā whakahaere pāpori, tōrangapū o Ngāti Hauā; hei tā Te Koohi, nā Tāmihana tēnei mahi.

Pērā i te tini o te iwi Māori, ka āwangawanga a Tāmihana mō te horapa o te Pākehā me tōna ao, ngā hoko whenua, te kore tautoko a te kāwanatanga i te noho me ngā whakahaere a te Māori. Ka whakapono a Tāmihana mā te kotahitanga o ngā iwi e ārai atu i te noho a te Pākehā; mā konā anō hoki e tau ai te rangimārie ki waenganui i ngā iwi. Ko Tāmihana tētahi i whai wāhi nui ki te hangatanga o te Kīngitanga me te whakatūnga o Pōtatau Te Wherowhero hei Kīngi Māori tuatahi. Whai anō mōhiotia ai ia ko te “Kaihanga Kīngi”. I te whakawahiatanga o Te Wherowhero hei Kīngi i te marama o Mei o te tau 1859, ka meahia e Tāmihana tētahi Paipera ki runga i te ūpoko o Te Wherowhero. Tatū ki tēnei rā, kei te kawea tonuhia taua tikanga e ngā uri whakaheke o Tāmihana.

Ka pau te kaha o Tāmihana ki te Kīngitanga. Nāna i awhi kia whakatūria tētahi nūpepa reo Māori. I te tau 1860 ka pakaru te riri ki Taranaki, ka haere a Tāmihana hei takawaenga. Heoi, kāore te kāwanatanga i te tino whakapono ki tēnei, ka whakakeke kē ki te Kīngitanga. Ahakoa ngā whakahau a Tāmihana mā, ka kuhu ētahi o ngā toa o Waikato ki te awhi i te hunga “whakakeke” o Taranaki. Tere tonu te whakapae a Kāwana Browne kei te takahi a Waikato i te Tiriti o Waitangi; ko tana tono tērā kia tuku rātou ki raro. Ko te whakautu a Tāmihana ki tēnei, kāore he tukituki o te Kīngitanga ki te mana o te Kuini o Peretānia: taea rawatia te mahi tahi a te Kīngi me te Kuini i raro i te maru o Ihowa o ngā mano.

I te tau 1863, i runga i te whakahau a Kāwana Kerei, ka whakawhiti ngā hōia o Peretānia i te awa o Mangatāwhiri, ka kuhu i ngā whenua kei raro i te mana o te Kīngitanga. Ahakoa ōna pā maioro me te tohungatanga o te Māori ki te hanga parepare, taea ai e ngā hōia te whakaeke, te karapoti rānei i a rātou. Kia rere rā anō ngā iwi o Waikato ki te Rohe Pōtae, kātahi anō ka marewa te riri. Kātahi ka kawea te riri ki roto o Tauranga. I te mutunga, ka pau te kaha o Tāmihana ki te whai paremata mō ngā whenua i raupatutia. Ka mate ia i te tau 1866.

Kātahi tētahi tangata ko Tāmihana; ahakoa tana matawhānui, nā te riri i kawea e tētahi atu, kāore i tutuki ōna tūmanako mō tōna iwi.

People: 
Ordered by: 
Te Rauparaha
First Name: 
Te Rauparaha
Birthdate Unknown: 
?
Died: 
27 Nov 1849
Biography: 

The Ngāti Toa chief's name is a taunt to an enemy Waikato chief who, when he was an infant, threatened to kill him and roast him with edible rauparaha leaves. Kāwhia-based Te Rauparaha (? -1849) led Ngāti Toa in a lengthy war with the Waikato tribes before defeat forced his tribe out of the area.

In the 1820s he led Ngāti Toa and its allies on a great migration to the southern North Island, using muskets to defeat traditionally armed local tribes. From his base on Kapiti Island, Te Rauparaha also controlled the northerners' invasion of the top of the South Island and launched devastating attacks against Ngāi Tahu as far south as Kaiapoi.

In 1839 he sold land in Nelson and Golden Bay to the New Zealand Company and in 1840 he signed the Treaty of Waitangi – twice on different copies – believing it would guarantee him ownership of the lands he had conquered.

He resisted later New Zealand Company attempts to survey and settle land he had not sold and, in the 1843 Wairau Incident, he and his supporters successfully repelled a settler party attempting to arrest them, killing 22, while several Māori also lost their lives. Wellington and Hutt Valley settlers feared a Ngāti Toa attack and in July 1846 Governor George Grey raided Te Rauparaha's pā at dawn and took him prisoner. He was held illegally without charge until January 1848 while Grey crushed his tribe. 

Adapted from the DNZB biography by Steven Oliver

Te Rauparaha

Ko te ingoa o Te Rauparaha (? – 1849) he whakamahara ki te taunu a tētahi rangatira o Waikato, i a ia e tamariki ana, i puta ana kupu whakahāwea ka patua e ia, otirā ka tukua ia ki te hāngī, ko ngā rau parahā hei rautao. Ko te kāinga taketake o Te Rauparaha, ko Kāwhia. Nā Te Rauparaha a Ngāti Toa i ārahi i tōna pakanga roa ki ngā iwi o Waikato. Nā ngā parekura o Ngāti Toa i aua pakanga, ka wehe atu ōna iwi i te takiwā o Waikato ki wāhi kē.

I ngā tau 1820, ka ārahina e ia a Ngāti Toa me ōna hoa i tō rātou heke nui ki Te Upoko o te Ika. Kua whiwhi pū a Ngāti Toa, nō reira ka raru i a rātou ngā iwi o ngā rohe o te tonga i ngā pakanga mō te whenua. Mai i Kāpiti Motu, ka whakahaeretia e Te Rauparaha te whakaekenga o ngā iwi o Te Tauihu o te Waka a Māui, ā, ka kōkiritia e ia ngā pā o Ngāi Tahu, tae rawa atu ki Kaiapoi.

I te tau 1839 ka hokona e Te Rauparaha he whenua i Whakatū me Te Tai Tapu ki te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni, ā, nō te tau 1840 ka hainatia e ia te Tiriti o Waitangi – e rua rawa ana hainatanga, ki ētahi kape e rua – i runga i te whakaaro mā reira pea e riro mai ai i a ia te tino mana o ngā whenua kua raupatutia e ia. I muri ka ātete tonu a Te Rauparaha ki ngā mahi a te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni ki te rūri i te whenua kīhai i hokona atu e ia. I te pakanga nui i te Wairau i te tau 1843, ka kauparea atu e rātou ko ana kaitautoko tētahi ope Pākehā kua tae mai ki te whakarau i a ia. E 22 ngā kaiwhakanoho Pākehā i mate, me ētahi o te taha Māori. I te wehi nui ngā kaiwhakanoho Pākehā i Pōneke me te Awakairangi kei tāorotia rātou e Ngāti Toa. I te marama o Hūrae i te tau 1846, ka kōkiritia te pā o Te Rauparaha e Kāwana Hori Kerei, ka mauheretia ia. I mauheretia ia, ahakoa kāore i tika i raro i te ture, taea noatia te marama o Hānuere 1848. Ko te mahi a Kerei i roto i aua marama, he tukituki i a Ngāti Toa.

People: 
Ordered by: 
Te Rangitake
First Name: 
Wiremu Kingi
Surname: 
Te Rangitake, Wiremu Kingi
Birthdate Unknown: 
?
Died: 
13 Jan 1882
Biography: 

Wiremu Kīngi Te Rangitāke, of Te Atiawa, was born at Waitara, Taranaki, near the end of the eighteenth century. His early life was affected by the great tribal migrations south (from Taranaki and Kāwhia) to Manawatu, Kapiti, Te Whanganui-a-Tara (the great harbour of Tara, or Wellington) and the northern South Island during the 1820s and 1830s.

In 1839 Te Rangitāke put his mark on one of the New Zealand Company deeds, but it is unlikely that he understood what it represented. In 1840 he drew his moko (tattoo) on the Treaty of Waitangi, brought south by Henry Williams.

In response to New Zealand Company claims that it had purchased his Taranaki lands, Te Rangitāke uttered the words that would recur in his later life: 'Waitara shall not be given up.' After later demands from Governor George Grey to give up their ancestral lands, 600 Te Āti Awa moved from Waikanae back to Taranaki.

For the next 11 years government land purchase agents worked with the chiefs they thought most likely to sell the land. This created constant unrest among the iwi (tribes), and fighting broke out among a number of hapu (sub-tribes) in 1854.

Te Rangitāke agreed with those who were against the sales. This caused hostility with the local settlers. He often spoke of his desire to live peacefully with Europeans, but he did not accept that the price of harmony should be the land of his iwi.

Things came to a head in 1859 when the chief Te Teira Mānuka offered the government some land near Waitara. Te Rangitake was determined that the land should not be sold. He told Governor Gore Browne, 'I will not permit the sale of Waitara ... Waitara is in my hands, I will not give it up; I will not, I will not, I will not'. The government’s view was that Te Rangitāke had no 'personal' rights in the land. The 'genuine' owners who chose to sell would be supported, by force if necessary. In fact Te Rangitāke was upholding his right as a senior rangatira (chief) to veto a sale of tribal lands.

In early 1860 the government sent in surveyors, and events soon spiralled into war. After a period of savage fighting, Kīngitanga chiefs negotiated an uneasy truce. Governor Grey decided to cancel the Waitara purchase on learning some 'new facts'. However, fighting broke out again in 1863 when government troops occupied the Tātaraimaka land block on the other side of New Plymouth. Defeat and land confiscation followed. Te Āti Awa saw this as a bitter injustice.

Te Rangitāke withdrew inland until 1872. Then he emerged to join the pacifist community at Parihaka, led by the prophets Te Whiti o Rongomai and Tohu Kākahi. He died in 1882.

Adapted from the DNZB biography by Ann Parsonson

Wiremu Kīngi Te Rangitāke

I whānau a Wiremu Kīngi Te Rangitāke ki Waitara i Taranaki i te paunga o ngā 1700. Ko Te Āti Awa tōna iwi. I pakeke ia i te wā o ngā heke nui o ngā iwi (mai i Taranaki me Kāwhia) ki te tonga - ki Manawatū, Kapiti, Te Whanga-nui-a-Tara me te Tauihu o te Waka a Māui. Nō ngā tekau tau o 1820 me 1830 ēnei heke.

I te tau 1839 ka tāia e Te Rangitāke tana moko ki tētahi tīra a te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni, heoi, ko te whakapae, kāore ia i tino mārama ki te tikanga o tēnei tuhinga. I te tau 1840, ka tuhia e ia tana moko ki te Tiriti o Waitangi, he mea hari whakatetonga e Te Karuwhā (Henry Williams).

Ko te urupare a Te Rangitāke ki te kī a te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni e mea ana kua hokona e te Kamupene ōna whenua ki Taranaki inā, “Kore rawa a Waitara e hokona”. Kātahi ka putaputa ngā whakahau a Kāwana Kerei ki a Te Āti Awa kia tukua ō rātou whenua i Waitara; ko te whakautu ki tērā, ko te hoki a te iwi atu i Waikanae ki Taranaki.

Mō ngā tau 11 ka whai, ka whakahoahoa ngā āpiha hoko whenua ki ērā o ngā rangatira ki tā rātou titiro tērā ka whakaaro mō te hoko. Nā tēnei, kāore i tau te noho a ngā hapū; waihoki, i te tau 1854 ka pakaru mai ngā riri ki waenganui i ētahi hapū, tētahi ki tētahi.

Kāore a Te Rangitāke mō te hoko i ngā whenua. Ka tipu te riri me ngā tāngata whai. He rite tana whakaputa i tōna hiahia kia noho pai me te Pākehā; heoti, kāore ia i whakaae ko te whenua hei utu mō taua noho pai.

I te tau 1859 ka tāpaea e Te Teira Mānuka tētahi pito whenua tata ki Waitara ki te kāwanatanga hei hoko. Ko te kōrero a Te Rangitāke, kaua taua whenua e hokona. Ka kī a ia ki te Kāwana, “E kore au e whakaae kia hokona a Waitara... kei roto a Waitara i te kapu o tōku ringa, kore mō te tuku. Kore, kore, kore rawa mō te tuku”. Hei tā te kāwanatanga, kāore he pānga ake o Te Rangitāke ki taua whenua. I tua atu, kei te hiahia te hunga nō rātou ake aua whenua ki te hoko, ā, ka tautokona rātou e te kāwanatanga me ana hōia. Heoti, i te whakaputa kē a Te Rangitāke i te mana o te rangatira nui, e tareka ai te whakakāhore i ngā ritenga hoko i ngā whenua o te iwi.

I te tōmuatanga o te tekau tau atu i 1860 ka tukua e te kāwanatanga ana kairūri, ā, kāore i roa ka mura ngā ahi o te riri. Hinga atu, hinga mai; kāore tētahi taha i eke ki runga i tētahi taha. Nā ngā rangatira o te Kingitanga i ārahi ngā whakawhitiwhiti kōrero mō te whakamutu i ngā riri. I te rongotanga o Kāwana Kerei i ētahi “kōrero kātahi anō ka puta”, ka whakakāhoreta e ia te hokonga whenua i Waitara. I te tomokanga o ngā hōia a te kāwanatanga ki te poraka whenua o Tātaramaika i te tau 1863, ka mura anō ngā ahi o te riri. Ka hinga a Te Āti Awa. Ka raupatutia ōna whenua. Ki tā rātou, kātahi tētahi āhuatanga hē, kino nui rawa atu ko tēnei.

Ka kuhu a Te Rangitāke ki te whakaruru o Te Rohe Pōtae mō tētahi tekau tau neke atu. Nō muri ka tautoko ia i te kāinga mautohe kua tū ki Parihaka, i raro i ngā matakite a Te Whiti rāua ko Tohu Kākahi. Ka mate a Te Rangitāke i te tau 1882.

People: 
Ordered by: 
Te Rangi-pūawhe, Te Keepa
First Name: 
Te Keepa
Surname: 
Te Rangi-pūawhe
Birthdate Unknown: 
?
Died: 
27 Jun 1905
Biography: 

Te Keepa Te Rangi-pūawhe (?–1905) was a chief of the Te Arawa iwi Tūhourangi, based at Tarawera near Rotorua. In the wars of the 1860s he supported the government.

In 1869, as a major in the New Zealand Militia, he helped lead a contingent of the Te Arawa tribe, which pursued the rebel leader Te Kooti into the Urewera region.

In the 1870s Te Keepa became a critic of the government’s land purchase policies and the Native Land Court. He supported the formation of tribal runanga or "native committees". These would make their own judgments about land title, and control the process of land alienation.

After the wars the Tūhourangi tribe prospered through the expanding tourist trade. Many of the most popular thermal and scenic areas, including the world-famous "pink and white terraces", lay on their land at Tarawera. This came to a sudden end with the calamitous Tarawera eruption on 10 June 1886. More than 100 people were killed and the terraces were destroyed. Tuhourangi were forced to take refuge with their relatives at Rotorua and elsewhere. Te Keepa strongly protested at the miserly aid given to the refugees by the government. Tūhourangi never regained their leading position in the Rotorua tourist trade, and with further land loss they became economically and socially marginalised.

Later Te Keepa supported the Kotahitanga movement, which sought implementation of the Treaty of Waitangi, the reversal of Māori land laws and a degree of self-government through a Kotahitanga - Maori Parliament. He died in 1905, and was buried with full military honours.

Adapted from the DNZB biography by Steven Oliver

Te Keepa Te Rangi-pūawhe

He rangatira a Te Keepa Te Rangi-pūawhe (?-1905) nō te iwi o Tūhourangi o Te Arawa, i noho mai ki Tarawera, pātata ki Rotorua. Ka whawhai ia mō te kāwanatanga i ngā pakanga o te tekau tau atu i 1860. Tae rawa ki te tau 1869 kua eke a Te Keepa hei meiha i Ngā Hōia ā-Iwi o Niu Tīreni; ko ia hoki te kaingārahu o tētahi ope taua o Te Arawa i kuhu ki Te Urewera ki te aru i a Te Kooti, te kaingārahu o ngā tāngata whakakeke ki te kāwanatanga.

I te tekau tau atu i 1870, ko Te Keepa tērā kei te arohae i ngā hokonga whenua a te kāwanatanga, tapiri atu ko ngā mahi a te Kōti Whenua Māori. Ka tautoko ia i te whakatūnga o ngā runanga ā-iwi hei whakatau taitara mō ngā whenua, hei whakahaere hoki i te rironga o ngā whenua.

I te mutunga o ngā pakanga, ka hua a Tūhourangi i te manaaki tūruhi ka taetae mai ki tō rātou rohe. Ko te maha o ngā wāhi puia, ngā wāhi mīharo hoki pērā i “ngā tūāpapa māwhero, tea”, kei runga i ngā whenua o Tūhourangi i Tarawera. Kotia ohoreretia rā ngā tauhokohoko a te iwi i te hūnga o Tarawera i te 10 o Hune i te tau 1886. Neke atu i te 100 tāngata i mate, whakangarohia ngā tūāpapa. Ka rere mōrehu a Tūhourangi ki ō rātou whanaunga i Rotorua me ētahi atu rohe. Ka tautohe rawa a Te Keepa ki te kāwanatanga kia nui atu ngā āwhina ki ngā mōrehu o te hū o Tarawera. Kore rawa a Tūhourangi i eke ki taua tūranga teitei o mua i roto i ngā kaupapa manaaki tūruhi i te takiwā o Rotorua. Ki te tāpirihia tēnei mate ki te rironga tonutanga o ō rātou whenua, i te mutunga atu, ka paheke te ōhanga, te noho me te wairua o te iwi.

Taihoa, ka tautoko a Te Keepa i te rōpū Kotahitanga, e whai ana kia whakamanatia te Tiriti o Waitangi, kia hurihia ngā ture e pā ana ki ngā whenua Māori, kia riro hoki ko te Māori tonu hei kāwanatanga mōna ki ētahi taumata, mā roto i tētahi Pāremata Māori, arā mā te Kotahitanga. I tōna matenga i te tau 1905, ka ūhia ngā hōnore hōia ki runga ki a ia.

People: 
Ordered by: 
Te Rangihiwinui, Te Keepa
First Name: 
Te Keepa
Surname: 
Te Rangihiwinui
Birthdate Unknown: 
?
Died: 
15 Apr 1898
Biography: 

Te Keepa, or Major Kemp, as he came to be known, was a chief of Muaūpoko, Ngāti Apa and Whanganui. He was born in the early 1820s. This was a time of great upheaval and conflict as Ngāti Toa, Ngāti Raukawa and Te Āti Awa migrated southwards.

In 1848 he was involved in the sale of the Whanganui block, and later he joined the Armed Police Force. By 1862 he was regarded as a leading supporter of the government. In the mid-1860s Te Keepa fought against the Hauhau (followers of the Pai Mārire religion). This conflict took place along the Whanganui River and in South Taranaki. He was promoted to major, and his troops were regarded as an elite force.

In 1868–69 Te Keepa and his troops were fully involved in the campaigns against Te Kooti and Tītokowaru. During the campaign against Tītokowaru Te Keepa and his men were alone among government forces in distinguishing themselves. In 1869 he was presented with the Queen's sword of honour, and in 1874 and 1876 he was awarded, respectively, the New Zealand Cross and the New Zealand War Medal. Despite these signs of European respect, Te Keepa's main influence remained within Māoridom, where he was equally respected for his military skill.

In 1865 Te Keepa was made a Native Land Court assessor, and in 1871 he was appointed a land purchase officer. He later risked his career by attempting to reverse the humiliating defeats of the Muaūpoko people in the 1820s by Ngāti Toa and other tribes. His battle-hardened veterans built a pa at Horowhenua, and there were violent clashes. The Native Land Court later significantly extended its award to Muaūpoko. One historian has noted that the judge’s decision was "powerfully assisted" by Te Keepa's threats of further action.

In the 1880s Te Keepa became an opponent of land-selling. He used his mana and authority in an attempt to increase Māori independence and control of their dwindling lands. In 1880 he tried to set up a Māori land trust at Wanganui. Sales would not be permitted, and the land would be administered by a Rūnanga (committee). But this, and other efforts to develop land in partnership with Europeans, came to nothing, largely because the Native Lands Acts failed to recognise or promote such enterprises.

Te Keepa later became active in the Kotahitanga movement. This sought to implement the Treaty of Waitangi, abolish the Native Lands Acts, and achieve a degree of Māori local self-government. He died in 1898.

Adapted from the DNZB biography by Anthony Dreaver

Te Keepa Te Rangihiwinui

He rangatira a Te Keepa – a Major Kemp rānei ki ngā Pākehā – o ngā iwi o Muaūpoko, o Ngāti Apa, o Whanganui. I whānau mai ia i ngā tau tōmua o te tekau tau atu i 1820, i te wā o te riri, o te hiki a ngā iwi pēnei i a Ngāti Toa, a Ngāti Raukawa, a Te Ātiawa ki te tonga.

I te tau 1848 i whai wāhi ia ki te hokonga o te poraka ki Wanganui, nō muri ka uru ia ki ngā Pirihimana Mau Pū. Kia tae ki te tau 1862 ko Te Keepa tētahi o ngā rangatira tautoko i te kāwanatanga. I te pokapū o te tekau tau atu i 1860 i te pakanga a Te Keepa ki ngā Hauhau (ngā kaihāpai i te whakapono Pai Mārire). Ka tū ngā whawhai ki te awa o Wanganui, ki te Tonga hoki o Taranaki. Ka kake a ia ki te tūranga hei meiha, ka tirohia ana toa pēnei i te mea nei ko rātou ngā toa o ngā toa.

I te 1868-69 kei reira anō a Te Keepa me ana toa, kei ngā pakanga ki a Te Kooti me Tītokowaru. I ngā riri ki a Tītokowaru, ko Te Keepa rātou ko ana toa anake ngā hōia a te kāwanatanga i tū kaha i te matawhāura. I te tau 1869 ka whakawhiwhia a ia ki te hoari hōnore a te Kuini; whāia, i ngā tau 1874 me te 1876 ka whakawhiwhia a ia ki te Rīpeka o Niu Tireni me te Mētara o Niu Tireni mō Tūmatauenga. Ahakoa anō ēnei tohu rangatira a te Pākehā, nui te mana o Te Keepa ki roto i te ao Māori mō tōna tohungatanga ki te whawhai.

I te tau 1865 ka tohungia a Te Keepa hei āteha mō te Kōti Whenua Māori, ā, i te tau 1871 ka tohungia a ia hei āpiha hoko whenua. Kātahi ia ka huri ki te whai utu mō Muaūpoko i ngā pakanga me ngā hingatanga ki a Ngāti Raukawa me ētahi atu iwi i te tekau tau atu i 1820. Whāia, ka tū te pā o ana toa kua pūkengatia rā ki te whawhai, ki te taha o te moana o Horowhenua. Heoi, he riri motumotu noa iho te riri. Nō muri ka hoki anō te Kōti Whenua Māori ki te whakawhānui i ngā whenua i whakaritea mō Muaūpoko. E ai ki tētahi tumu kōrero, he “āwhina nui” ki te kaiwhakawā i roto i tana whakatau te kī taurangi a Te Keepa, ki te kore e eke ki tā Muaūpoko i hiahia ai, ka haere tonu ngā rīriri.

I te tekau tau atu i 1880 ka ātete a Te Keepa i te hokonga whenua. Ka whakahau a ia kia kaua e hokona ngā whenua e toe ana, me tū motuhake te Māori. I te tau 1880 ka ngana ia ki te whakatū i tētahi kaitiaki whenua ki Wanganui. Kāore e whakaaetia te hoko whenua; ka tōpūngia ngā whenua i raro i ngā whakahaere o tētahi Rūnanga. Hauwarea tēnei me ētahi atu kaupapa whakapai ake i ngā whenua i runga i te mahi tahi me te Pākehā, nā te mea kāore i arongia e ngā Ture Whenua Māori.

Nō muri ka kuhu a Te Keepa ki te Kotahitanga, i ngana kia whakamanaia te Tiriti o Waitangi, kia whakakorea ngā Ture Whenua Māori, kia whai wāhi anō te Māori ki te whakahaere i a ia anō. Ka mate ia i te tau 1898.

People: 
Ordered by: 
Te Pahi
Surname: 
Te Pahi
Birthdate Unknown: 
?
Died Unknown: 
1810
Biography: 

Bay of Islands Ngāpuhi chief Te Pahi (? -1810) was the first influential Māori leader to have significant contact with British colonial officials.

In 1805 Te Pahi and four of his sons spent three months at Government House in Sydney as guests of Governor Philip King. Both were keen on establishing good relations: King because he wanted protection for British whaling crews and Te Pahi because he wanted access to trade and technology. He also met and impressed Samuel Marsden and returned home with gifts, including potato seeds and a small prefabricated house.

Four years later, a whaling ship, the Boyd, visiting Whangaroa was plundered and its crew massacred. Te Pahi was blamed, though his responsibility was disputed. He was injured in a revenge attack and killed in a subsequent battle between his people and those of Whangaroa. Despite arguments over his role, the positive impression he left on colonial officials helped to shape their belief that increased contact with Māori would benefit both sides.

Adapted from the DNZB biography by Angela Ballara

Te Pahi

Ko Te Pahi (? -1810), nō Ngāpuhi, tētahi rangatira o Pēwhairangi. Koia te rangatira whai mana tuatahi i kōrero auau tonu ki ngā āpiha Ingarihi o ngā koroni. I te tau 1805, ka noho a Te Pahi me ana tama tokowhā i te Whare o te Kāwana i Poihākena, arā, hei manuhiri mā Kāwana Philip King. I te hiahia ngā taha e rua ki te whakawhanaunga tētahi ki tētahi: I te hiahia a Kīngi kia tiakina ngā rōpū whaiwhai tohorā o Ingarangi, ko te hiahia o Te Pahi kia tae wawe mai ki a Ngā Puhi ngā mahi hokohoko me ngā taputapu hou. I tūtaki hoki ia ki a Te Mātenga ā, ka hoki mai ki te kāinga me ētahi koha, tae noa ki ētahi kōpura taewa, me tētahi whare pakupaku kua oti kē ōna wāhanga te tūhonohono.

E whā tau i muri mai ka huakina te Boyd, he kaipuke whaiwhai tohorā, i Whangaroa, ka patua ōna heremana. Ka whakapaetia a Te Pahi mō tēnei parekura, engari tērā anō ētahi i kī i te hē ngā whakapae mōna. I taotū ia i te pakanga takitaki mate o te taha Ingarihi, ā, ka hinga ia i tētahi pakanga i muri iho, i waenganui i tōna iwi me te iwi o Whangaroa. Ahakoa ngā tautohetohe mō tāna mahi i ēnei pakanga, nā tana mahi nui ki te whakawhanaunga ki ngā āpiha koroni i piki ake ai tō rātou whakaaro he mea pai te toro mai o te ringa whakawhanaunga ki te ao Māori, hei painga mō ngā taha e rua.

People: 

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