Maori leaders

Ordered by: 
Te Kooti Arikirangi Te Turuki
First Name: 
Te Kooti Arikirangi Te Turuki
Birthdate Unknown: 
?
Died: 
17 Apr 1893
Biography: 

Te Kooti (died 1893) was of Ngāti Maru, a hapū (sub-tribe) of the Tūranganui-a-Kiwa (Gisborne) tribe Rongowhakaata. During a wild and turbulent youth, he made enemies among Europeans and some of his own people. He converted to Christianity and, like other Tūranganui Māori, became involved in coastal shipping.

In 1865 Te Kooti was among the few Ngāti Maru who did not convert to the Pai Mārire religion, which opposed the sale of land to Europeans. Instead he joined the government forces which fought 'rebel' Pai Mārire (Hauhau) at Waerenga-a-Hika (near Gisborne) in November 1865. After the fighting he was held on suspicion of being a spy, a charge which was probably trumped up. He appealed to Donald McLean for a hearing, but was ignored. He was exiled to the Chatham Islands with a number of Hauhau prisoners.

While on the Chathams Te Kooti experienced spiritual visions and founded the Ringatū Church, which was grounded in both the Old Testament and Māori custom. On 4 July 1868 Te Kooti led an escape of the Chatham Island prisoners – 163 men and 135 women and children – on the Rifleman, a vessel they had seized. They landed just south of Poverty Bay on 10 July. Te Kooti told Reginald Biggs, the resident magistrate at Gisborne, that he and his followers did not want to fight Europeans but to travel to the King Country, where he hoped to strengthen his position as a spiritual leader of the Māori people. Biggs demanded that Te Kooti's party give up their arms. When they did not, he pursued and attacked them, and war began.

During the next few months Te Kooti was successful in a series of battles, and for a few weeks in November/December 1868 he controlled much of the Poverty Bay district. His fighting force of about 200 consisted of the Rifleman group and a number of other Māori who joined him later – mostly members of Tūhoe from the Urewera, and Ngāti Kahungunu from inland Wairoa. The execution of about 70 Pākehā and Māori (including women and children) at Matawhero, Poverty Bay, on 10 November earned him many powerful Māori enemies, but also the support of some motivated by fear. The government became all the more grimly determined to capture or kill him. A massive bounty of £5,000 – equivalent to $580,000 in 2015 – was placed on his head.

At the battle of Ngātapa, in January 1869, Te Kooti suffered a major defeat by Pākehā troops and their Ngāti Porou and Ngāti Kahungunu allies. Although Te Kooti and some of his followers escaped, up to 120 of his men were captured and executed by Ngāti Porou. Te Kooti launched a raid on Mōhaka (northern Hawke's Bay) in April and then retired into the Urewera.

Government forces applied a scorched earth policy so that the Tūhoe tribe could not shelter Te Kooti and the dwindling remnants of his band, but he always managed to evade capture. Armed parties constantly crossed the Kāingaroa plains, the Urewera and surrounding districts, pillaging, burning and killing.

One by one the Tūhoe leaders were forced to surrender. Stripped of his main support, Te Kooti took shelter in the King Country under the protection of King Tāwhiao. From then on he avoided the path of war.

Te Kooti lived at Te Kūiti, in the King Country, until he was pardoned in 1883. However, he was never allowed to go home to Tūranganui. During this period he developed the rituals of the Ringatū Church. By the late 1870s the faith had spread widely, and his reputation as a prophet and healer grew rapidly. He died in 1893. 

Adapted from the DNZB biography by Judith Binney

Te Kooti Arikirangi Te Turuki

Nō te hapū o Ngāti Maru, iwi o Rongowhakaata o Tūranganui-a-Kiwa a Te Kooti (? –1893). Ka huri a ia hei Karaitiana, ā, pērā tonu i te nuinga o ngā Māori o Tūranganui, ka kuhu ia ki ngā tauhokohoko ki tai. Ka hau te rongo mōna he mohoao, he wāwāhi tahā. Ka huri ētahi o ngā Pākehā me ētahi tonu o ōna uri tonu ki te whakamau ki a ia.

I te tau 1865, ko ia tētahi o te tokoiti o te hapū o Ngāti Maru i whakakeke ki te kuhu hei Pai Mārire, e ātete ana i te hokonga whenua ki te Pākehā. Ka kuhu kē ia ki te taha o te taua kāwanatanga ka whawhai ki ngā Hauhau i Waerenga-a-Hika i te marama o Nōema 1865. I te mutunga o te whawhai, ka whakapaetia ia he pūrahorua; ko te āhua nei, he mahi hīanga tēnei kia uru ai a Te Kooti ki te raruraru. Ka tono a ia ki a Te Mākarini kia whakawākia ngā whakapae kei runga i a ia; hauwarea. Ka panā ia ki Wharekauri i te taha o ngā mauhere Hauhau.

I te wā e mauhere ana ia i Wharekauri, ka uru he wairua ki roto i a ia. Koinei te auahatanga o te Hāhi Ringatū, i taketake mai i te Kawenata Tawhito me ngā tikanga a te Māori. I te rā 4 o Hūrae 1868 ka aratakina e Te Kooti ngā mauhere kia puta i Wharekauri – 163 ngā tāne, 135 ngā wāhine tae atu ki ngā tamariki – mā runga i te kaipuke Rifleman nā rātou i muru. Nō te 10 o Hūrae ka tau te Rifleman  ki te tonga o Tūranganui-a-Kiwa. Ka tukua e Te Kooti tana kōrero ki a Te Piiki (Reginald Biggs), te kaiwhakawā ā-rohe mō Tūranganui, e mea ana kāore a ia me te whakarau i te hiahia whawhai ki ngā Pākehā, ko te hiahia kē o Te Kooti kia haere ki te Rohe Pōtae, ki reira whakaū ai i tōna tūranga hei kaiarataki i te wairua o te iwi Māori. Ka whakahau a Te Piiki kia tukua e te whakarau ō rātou pū ki raro; tē arohia atu. Kātahi ka whāia, ka tomokia rātou e Te Piiki; koinei te tīmatanga o te riri.

I ngā marama ka whai, ka toa a Te Kooti i roto i ngā pakanga, ā, i te marama o Nōema 1868 kei raro te nuinga o Tūranganui i tōna mana. Hui katoa, e 200 ana toa, ngā whakarau mai i Wharekauri me ētahi atu Māori i whakapiri ki a ia – te nuinga nō te iwi o Ngāi Tūhoe o Te Urewera, nō ngā hapū o Ngāti Kahungunu o te taha whakaroto o Wairoa hoki. Nā te kōhuru o ētahi mauhere Pākehā, Māori (he wāhine, tamariki ētahi) i Matawhero i te Nōema 1868, ka mauāhara ētahi rangatira Māori ki a ia. Waihoki, nā te wehi me te mataku, ka tahuri ētahi ki te tautoko i a ia. I tua atu, ka mārō te kāwanatanga ki te hopu, ki te whakamate rānei i a Te Kooti. E rima mano pāuna ka utaina ki runga i tōna māhunga.

I te riri i Ngātapa i te marama o Hānuere i te tau 1869, ka hinga ngā toa a Te Kooti i ngā hōia Pākehā me ngā kūpapa mai i Ngāti Porou, Te Arawa, Ngāti Kahungunu. Ka puta a Te Kooti me ētahi atu i tēnei mate nui. Heoi, ka hopukina, ka whakamatea ētahi o ana toa; e mea ana te kōrero neke atu i te 120 tō rātou tokomaha. I te marama o Āperira o taua tau anō, ka huakina e Te Kooti a Mōhaka (Te Matau-a-Māui); taro ake ka rere whakaroto ia ki Te Urewera.

Kātahi ka tau te mutunga mai o te kino ki runga ki te tangata, ki runga ki te whenua. Ka pāhuatia a Te Urewera e ngā hōia a te kāwanatanga, kia kore e taea te manaaki, te whakamarumaru i a Te Kooti me tana ope iti. He tohunga a Te Kooti ki te kokoti whakamoe. Tē mau i ngā hōia. Mō ngā tau e whā ka whai, i takahia a Kāingaroa, Te Urewera me ngā rohe tata e ngā ope taua; he muru, he tahu, he kōhuru ngā mahi.

Ko te whakamutunga o ngā riri kei roto i Te Urewera. Ka tuku tēnā me tēnā rangatira o Ngāi Tūhoe i a ia ki raro. I te kaha kore o te iwi, ka rere a Te Kooti ki te Rohe Pōtae, ki reira noho ai i raro i te mana o Kīngi Tāwhiao. I konei ka whakairia e ia tana patu me tana pū, kore rawa mō te whakaarahia. Ka noho a Te Kooti ki Te Kūiti i te Rohe Pōtae, kia unuhia ngā whakapae a te ture kei runga i a ia i te tau 1883. Ahakoa tērā, kāore i whakaaetia tana hoki ki tōna kāinga tūturu ki Tūranganui. I tēnei wā ka whakaritea e ia ngā tikanga o te Hāhi Ringatū. Ka tae ki te paunga o te tekau tau atu i 1870, kua horapa te hāhi, kua hau hoki te rongo mō Te Kooti hei matakite, hei tohunga whakaora tangata. Ka mate ia i te tau 1893.

People: 
Ordered by: 
Te Heuheu Tūkino IV, Horonuku
First Name: 
Horonuku
Surname: 
Te Heuheu
Birthdate Unknown: 
?
Died Unknown: 
1888
Biography: 

Horonuku Te Heuheu Tūkino IV, of Ngāti Tūwharetoa, was born in the 1820s on the shores of Lake Taupō. He became a supporter of the King Movement in the 1850s.

In 1862 he succeeded his uncle, Iwikau, as paramount chief of Ngati Tūwharetoa. In 1863 Grey ordered the invasion of the Waikato. Te Heuheu honoured a promise his uncle had made to the Māori King, and led a war party to assist the Waikato tribes.

After the Waikato defeat he returned to Taupō. He was later suspected of supporting Te Kooti, but claimed that he had been taken prisoner. Because of Te Heuheu’s political influence the government did not investigate this matter too closely, or confiscate any Ngāti Tūwharetoa land.

In 1882 Ngāti Tūwharetoa placed much of their land within the Rohe Pōtae (King Country). They hoped to prevent European settlers advancing, and to support the King movement. But in 1885 Te Heuheu broke ranks with the Kīngitanga and invited the Native Land Court into the district.

At one Land Court hearing, Te Keepa Te Rangihiwinui, the Muaūpoko/Ngāti Apa/Wanganui chief who had fought against Te Kooti, claimed rights to southern Taupō through conquest. When he claimed that his fires of occupation had burned on the land, Te Heuheu famously pointed to the smoking peak of Mount Tongariro (the iconic maunga, or mountain of Ngāti Tūwharetoa), saying "There is my fire". The land was awarded to Ngāti Tūwharetoa.

During these hearings Te Heuheu, encouraged by Native Minister John Ballance, decided that the best way to preserve his sacred mountains - Tongariro, Ngāuruhoe and Ruapehu - was to transfer them to the Crown. They would become the nation’s first national park. This was duly done, although some of his fellow chiefs opposed it. Te Heuheu died in 1888.

Adapted from the DNZB biography by Steven Oliver

Horonuku Te Heuheu Tūkino IV

I whānau mai a Horonuku Te Heuheu Tūkino i te tekau tau atu i 1820 ki ngā tahatika o te moana o Taupō. Ko Ngāti Tūwharetoa tōna iwi. I te tekau tau atu i 1850 ka pūmau tana tautoko i te Kīngitanga.

I te tau 1862 ka mate tōna matua kēkē, a Iwikau, ka ara ko Horonuku hei ariki o Ngāti Tūwharetoa. I te tau 1863 ka whakahau a Kerei kia urutomokia te riu ki Waikato. Ko te aranga ake tērā o Te Heuheu ki te whakatutuki i te kupu taurangi a Iwikau ki te Kīngi Māori. Nāna i ārahi te ope taua o te iwi i haere ki te āwhina i ngā iwi o Waikato.

Ka hinga a Waikato, ko te hokinga tērā o Te Heuheu ki tōna kāinga. Nō muri ka rere ngā whakapae mōna he haumi nā Te Kooti, heoi, ko tāna, nā Te Kooti kē a ia i kahaki. Nā tana awe i te ao tōrangapū kāore te kāwanatanga i āta tirotiro i tēnei whakapae, ā, kāore hoki he whenua o Ngāti Tūwharetoa i raupatutia.

I te tau 1882 ka tukua e Ngāti Tūwharetoa ōna whenua ki te Rohe Pōtae, i runga i te tūmanako mā tēnei e ārahi atu ngā Pākehā e whakatata mai rā; i tua atu he tohu tēnei mō te tautoko a te iwi i te Kīngitanga. Heoi, i te tau 1885 ka tangohia e Te Heuheu a Tūwharetoa ki waho o tēnei whakaaetanga, ka tono kia kuhu te Kōti Whenua Māori me ana mahi ki roto i te rohe o Ngāti Tūwharetoa.

Tērā tētahi wā e noho ana te Kōti Whenua, ka tū ake a Te Keepa Te Rangihiwinui - rangatira o Muaūpoko/Ngāti Apa/Wanganui, hoariri o Te Kooti – ki te taunaha i te tonga o te moana o Taupō i runga i te take raupatu. I tana kī ake kei te mura tonu ana ahi kā ki te whenua, ka huri a Te Heuheu ka tohu ki te tihi o Tongariro (te maunga tapu o Ngāti Tūwharetoa) e tuku auahi mai rā me tana kī, “Arā taku ahi”. Whakawhiwhia ana ngā whenua katoa ki a Ngāti Tūwharetoa.

I te wā ka kōtitia te whenua, ka whakaaro a Te Heuheu – i runga i ngā akiaki a Te Paranihi, te Minita mō ngā Take Māori – ko te huarahi pai hei tiaki i ngā maunga tapu a Tongariro, a Ngāuruhoe, a Ruapehu, ko te tuku ki raro i te mana o te Karauna. Ka mana tēnei hiahia ōna, ka noho koinei ngā whenua tāpui tuatahi o te motu. Kāore ētahi o ngā rangatira i whakaae ki tēnei mahi āna. Ka mate a Te Heuheu i te tau 1888.

People: 
Ordered by: 
Te Heuheu Tūkino III, Iwikau
First Name: 
Iwikau
Surname: 
Te Heuheu Tūkino III
Birthdate Unknown: 
?
Died Unknown: 
October 1862
Biography: 

Iwikau Te Heuheu Tūkino III, paramount chief of Ngāti Tūwharetoa in the Taupō region from 1846 to 1862, was born late in the eighteenth century and, like his older brother, Mananui, whom he succeeded, became a renowned warrior at an early age.

In January 1840, he travelled to the Bay of Islands with missionary Henry Williams to take part in the deliberations on the Treaty of Waitangi. Impressed by Williams' explanation of the Treaty, he and his companion Te Korohiko signed, although they had no authority to commit the tribe. When, several months later, a copy of the Treaty was discussed at Rotorua, Mananui repudiated his brother's action. But Iwikau's signature remains on the Waitangi copy of the Treaty. Iwikau became acquainted with Governor George Grey during his visits to Auckland and in 1850 undertook a journey with him from Auckland to his home at Pūkawa near Taupō. In recognition of his loyalty to the Queen, Grey presented him with a flag similar in design to that given to the northern tribes by William IV in 1834.

During the 1850s, Iwikau sought both to restrain Māori protest and to support the growing grievances over the loss of land. Late in 1856, he convened at Pūkawa a meeting opposed to further land sales. An ardent proponent of Māori nationalism, he also encouraged the movement to set up a Māori king. He supported the installation of Pōtatau Te Wherowhero of Waikato as King at Ngāruawāhia in 1858. But when the Taranaki war broke out in 1860, he tried to prevent Ngāti Tūwharetoa from joining, fearing that the tribe's lands would be threatened.

He died in October 1862.

Adapted from the DNZB biography by Elizabeth Hura

Iwikau Te Heuheu Tukino III

I whānau a Iwikau Te Heuheu Tukino III, ariki o Ngāti Tūwharetoa o Taupō mai i 1846 ki 1862, i ngā tau whakamutunga o te rau tau tekau mā waru. He toa tūtū taua ia rite tonu ki tana tuakana ki a Mananui, ariki o mua atu i a ia.

I te marama o Hānuere 1840, ka haere ia ki Pēwhairangi i te taha o te kaikauwhau o Te Karuwhā, ki te hui nui mō te Tiriti o Waitangi. He pai katoa ki a ia ngā whakamārama a Te Karuwhā mō te Tiriti, ā, ka tahuri rāua ko tana hoa a Te Korohiko ki te haina, ahakoa kāore ō rāua mana haina mō te katoa o Ngāti Tūwharetoa. I ētahi marama i muri mai, i te whakawhitinga kōrero mō tētahi kape o te Tiriti i Rotorua, ka turakina e te tuakana e Mananui te hainatanga a te teina. Engari kei te noho tonu te hainatanga o Iwikau ki te kape o te Tiriti i hainatia i Waitangi. I whakahoa atu a Iwikau ki a Kāwana Hori Kerei i ana hāereere ki Tāmaki-makau-rau, ā, i te tau 1850 ka haere tahi rāua i Tāmaki-makau-rau ki tōna kāinga i Pūkawa, i te moana o Taupō. Ka whakawhiwhia a Iwikau ki tētahi kara, he āhua rite tonu ki te kara i hoatu e Kīngi Wiremu IV o Ingarangi ki ngā iwi o Te Tai Tokerau i te tau 1834, hei tohu mō tōna piripono ki te Kuini.

I te tekau tau mai i 1850, ka anga a Iwikau ki te whakamāriri i te whakahē nui o te iwi Māori, otirā ki te tautoko i ngā whawhai a te Māori mō te ngaromanga o te whenua. Ka karangatia e ia tētahi hui nui ki Pūkawa i te tau 1856 ki te whakahē i ngā hoko whenua. He tino kaihāpai i te mana Māori motuhake, ā, ka tautokona hoki e ia te mahi whakatū kīngi. I tū ia ki te tautoko i te pōtaetanga o Pōtatau Te Wherowhero o Waikato hei Kīngi i Ngāruawāhia i te tau 1858. Nō te kānga o te ahi o te pakanga i Taranaki i te tau 1860, ka whakamātau ia ki te pupuru i a Ngāti Tūwharetoa kia kaua e whakauru ki te pakanga. Ko tōna wehi nui kei riro ngā whenua o tōna iwi.

Ka mate ia i te marama o Oketopa 1862.

People: 
Ordered by: 
Te Hāpuku
Surname: 
Te Hāpuku
Birthdate Unknown: 
?
Died: 
23 May 1878
Biography: 

Te Hāpuku (?–1878), of the Ngāti Kahungunu tribe Ngāti Te Whatu-i-apiti, was an influential chief of Hawke's Bay. As a youth he was caught up in the wars which swept over the region, and was a prisoner of the Waikato tribe for a time.

He was a signatory to the 1835 Declaration of Independence, and as a result Major Bunbury, who took the Treaty of Waitangi to Hawke’s Bay in 1840, took care to obtain his signature. At first Te Hāpuku rejected the Treaty on the basis that Ngāpuhi had become "slaves" by supporting it, but he was later persuaded to sign.

In the early 1850s Te Hāpuku became a firm ally of Donald McLean, the influential government land purchase commissioner. Te Hāpuku helped him purchase large tracts of land in the Wairarapa and Hawke's Bay. He was eager to sell land because he hoped European settlement would bring commercial and other advantages. McLean began to treat Te Hāpuku as the leading chief of the district, and Te Hāpuku took on the role of a government land purchase agent. This led to growing hostility from other Hawke's Bay rangatira (chiefs) who were less keen to sell land, and who had (or claimed) at least as much status as Te Hāpuku.

Te Hāpuku was determined to sell land without the knowledge or consent of those who occupied or claimed rights over it. In response, armed clashes broke out in 1857-58. Peace was restored when McLean arranged an agreement in September 1858.

Te Hāpuku opposed the King Movement and fought against the Hauhau and Te Kooti. But he later supported the Hawke's Bay-based Repudiation movement, which aimed to reverse purchases that were said to be fraudulent. He died in 1878.

Adapted from the DNZB biography by Angela Ballara

Te Hāpuku

Nō te iwi o Ngāti Te Whatu-i-apiti o Ngāti Kahungunu a Te Hāpuku (?-1878). He rangatira nui ia ki Te Matau a Māui. I tōna ohinga i te wā o ngā pakanga ā-iwi, ka hopukina, ka mauria ia hei mauhere e ngā iwi o Waikato mō tētahi wā.

I te tau 1835 ka haina ia i te Whakaputanga o te Rangatiratanga o Niu Tīreni. Koinā te take, i te heringa a Meiha Bunbury i te Tiriti o Waitangi ki Te Matau a Māui i te tau 1840, ka tika tōna ara ki a Te Hāpuku ki te haina. I te tīmatanga, kāore ia i tautoko te Tiriti, i te mea hei tāna, nā tō rātou tautoko, kua noho a Ngā Puhi hei “taurekareka”; heoi, nō muri ka haina ia.

I te tōmuatanga o te tekau tau atu i 1850, ka pūmau a Te Hāpuku ki a Te Mākarini (Donald McLean), te kōmihana hoko whenua a te kāwanatanga. Nā Te Hāpuku ia i āwhina ki te hoko i ētahi whenua nui ki Te Wairarapa, ki Te Matau a Māui. I hīkaka ia ki te hoko whenua, nā runga i te tūmanako ki te tau te noho a te Pākehā, ka whai hua te iwi, ka tipu ngā tauhokohoko. Ka titiro a Te Mākarini ki a Te Hāpuku ānō nei ko ia te rangatira nui o te rohe. Ka noho a Te Hāpuku hei āpiha hoko whenua mā te kāwanatanga. Nā tēnei, ka tipu te raruraru ki ētahi atu rangatira o Te Matau a Māui e whakakeke ana kia hoko whenua, me tā rātou kī, he rite, he nui ake rānei ō rātou mana i te mana o Te Hāpuku.

Ka whakatenetene tonu a Te Hāpuku ki te hoko whenua. Hei ētahi wā, kāore ngā tāngata kei te noho i runga i te whenua i te mōhio kei te hokona aua whenua e Te Hāpuku, ahakoa ō rātou pānga ki te whenua. Whai anō ka pakaru te riri i te 1857-58. Nā Te Mākarini te rongo i hohou i te marama o Hepetema o te tau 1858.

I ātete a Te Hāpuku ki te Kīngitanga, i whawhai ia ki ngā Hauhau, i whawhai ia ki a Te Kooti. Nō muri ka huri ia ki te tautoko i te kaupapa Whakahētanga Hoko Whenua, i ngana ki te unu i ngā hokonga whenua i whakaarohia he whānako. Ka mate ia i te tau 1878.

People: 
Ordered by: 
Tāwhiao, Tukaroto Potatau Matutaera
First Name: 
Tūkāroto Pōtatau Matutaera
Surname: 
Tāwhiao
Birthdate Unknown: 
?
Died: 
26 Aug 1894
Biography: 

In June 1860 Tūkāroto Matutaera Pōtatau Te Wherowhero Tāwhiao became the second Māori king when he succeeded his father, Pōtatau Te Wherowhero.

Tāwhiao's reign was dominated by the consequences of the British invasion of the Waikato in 1863. As a result of this war Tāwhiao and his people became refugees in Ngāti Maniapoto country (which became known as the King Country). About 1.2 million acres (just under half a million hectares) of Waikato land was confiscated by the government in 1864. Despite these hardships Tāwhiao eventually led his people back to the Waikato. In 2008 a movement that had looked dead and buried in the 1870s celebrated its 150th anniversary.

Tāwhiao, of the Tainui hāpu (sub-tribe) Ngāti Mahuta, was born at the end of the musket wars between Tainui and Ngā Puhi. It is said that he was named Tukaroto to commemorate his father's stand at the siege of Mātakitaki pā in May 1822. He was later baptised Matutaera (Methuselah) by the Anglican missionary Robert Burrows. In 1864 Te Ua Haumēne, the Hauhau prophet, gave him the name Tāwhiao.

Tāwhiao was a student of the Bible as well as being well versed in the ancient rites of the Tainui priesthood. As King he was an important spiritual as well as political leader. He was regarded as a great visionary and many of his teachings and sayings were of a prophetic nature. Tāwhiao promised that those who had remained faithful to the tenets of the King movement would be redeemed and exonerated by history. Tāwhiao and his followers saw their predicament as a dramatic parallel to the biblical exile of the children of Israel.

Tāwhiao, like his father before him, had initially opposed the fighting that had erupted in Taranaki in 1860. He was aware that war threatened the unity of the Kīngitanga and some supporters feared the consequences of a British invasion. In July 1863 British troops invaded the Waikato by crossing the Mangatawhiri stream. Tāwhiao had declared this to be an aukati – a boundary not to be crossed – and that any breach would be considered an act of war.  

Kīngitanga forces attempted to stall the British advance with significant battles at Meremere and Rangiriri in October-November 1863. The capture of Tāwhiao's capital at Ngaruawahia in December and defeat at Orakau in April 1864 saw Kīngitanga leaders withdraw from Waikato to Tokangamutu (Te Kuiti) in Ngāti Maniapoto territory. Some European commentators spoke of its 'withdrawal into sullen isolation'.

The issue of land confiscation dominated dealings between the Kīngitanga and the government in the post-wars period. Tāwhiao was adamant that reconciliation was impossible without the return of all confiscated land. This was rejected by the government. In 1881 the King and his followers finally laid down their weapons and returned to Waikato, with Tāwhiao stating that 'this is the end of warfare in this land.' But they did not give up their efforts to seek compensation for the land they had lost.

In 1884 Tāwhiao led a party to England to petition Queen Victoria. He wanted a Māori parliament and an independent commission of inquiry into the land confiscations. He stressed that the Kīngitanga was not separatist and did not reject the Queen's authority. He believed that it unified Māori so that they might more effectively claim the Queen's protection. In his view King and Queen could peacefully coexist. His petition was referred back to the New Zealand government, which dismissed it.

Tāwhiao continued to help Māori address their concerns and petition the government. He also established the Māori parliament, Te Kauhanganui.

Tāwhiao died on 26 August 1894 at Parawera. He was buried at Taupiri after a tangihanga in September which was attended by thousands. Tāwhiao left a legacy of religious principles from which his people would draw a future dream for Tainui: the rebirth of a self-sufficient economic base, supported by the strength and stability of the people.

Adapted from the DNZB biography by R. T. Mahuta

Tāwhiao, Tūkāroto Matutaera Pōtatau Te Wherowhero (Kīngi Tāwhiao)

Nō Ngāti Mahuta, iwi o Tainui, a Tāwhiao. Ka whānau ia i te whakamutunga o ngā riri mau pū i waenganui i ngā iwi o Waikato me Ngā Puhi. Ahakoa he Karaitiana, i ākona ia ki ngā karakia, ki te kawa o ngā iwi o Tainui. He matakite ia. Ko tōna matua a Pōtatau te Kīngi Māori tuatahi. I tōna matenga i te tau 1860, ka kake a Tāwhiao hei kīngi, hei oranga wairuatanga mō tōna iwi. Mō ngā tau e 34 ka whai, ko ia te kīngi Māori. Ka noho ngā tau tōmua o tōna kīngitanga ko ngā tau tutetute nui i te hītori o te noho a te Māori me te Pākehā ki Aotearoa.

Nā te urutomo, te hingatanga i roto i ngā pakanga, te raupatu o ngā whenua 1.2 miriona eka o Waikato, ka rere a Tāwhiao me tōna iwi ki te Rohe Pōtae whakamarumaru ai. He maha ngā tau ka noho rātou ki reira.

Ahakoa ngā hui i tūtū ki ngā minita me ngā āpiha a te kāwanatanga, kāore he hua i puta. Ko te kupu a Tāwhiao, i riro whenua atu me hoki whenua mai. Kāore i manaakitia tēnei hiahia ōna e te kāwanatanga. Nō te tau 1881 rā anō tukua ai ngā patu a Tāwhiao me tōna iwi, ka hoki rātou ki tō rātou kāinga i Waikato. Engari ka rapua tonutia he paremata mō ngā whenua i raupatutia, ā, ka nui atu ngā tautoko mō te Kīngitanga.

I te tau 1884 ka ārahina e Tāwhiao tētahi tira ki Ingarangi ki te kawe pitihana ki a Kuini Wikitōria. Ka tono ia kia tū he Pāremata Māori, tētahi kōmihana hoki hei rangahau i ngā whenua i raupatutia. I kaha ia ki te whakaputa i te kōrero, kāore te Kīngitanga i te hiahia kia noho wehe, ka arongia tonutia te mana o te Kuini. I ngana ia kia whakakotahi te iwi Māori, e pakari ake ai te tono i ngā manaakitanga a te Kuini. Ki tāna titiro, taea noatia ai te haere ngātahi o te Kīngi me te Kuini, ko te Atua ki runga. Ka whakahokia te pitihana a Tāwhiao ki te kāwanatanga o Aotearoa; kāore i arongia.

Ka mahi tonu a Tāwhiao kia rongohia ngā āwangawanga o te iwi Māori, ka pitihana tonu ia i te kāwanatanga. Nāna ka tū Te Kauhanganui, arā te Pāremata Māori. Ka mate ia i te tau 1894.

People: 
Ordered by: 
Tāwhai, Hōne Mohi
First Name: 
Hōne Mohi
Surname: 
Tāwhai
Birthdate Unknown: 
1827/1828?
Died: 
31 Jul 1894
Biography: 

Hōne Mohi Tāwhai was born in the Hokianga in 1827 or 1828. He was about 12 years old when his father signed the Treaty of Waitangi, and he became a leader early in life.

In the 1860s he was involved in a district runanga (tribal council) set up by Governor Grey. Later he was made a Native Land Court assessor. By the mid-1870s he became disillusioned with the Native Land Court and began to call for Māori control over land title and land alienation.

Tāwhai became a member of the House of Representatives, representing Northern Māori, in 1879. He debated effectively on a number of race relations issues. In 1881 and 1882 he promoted a Native Committees Bill to limit the power of the Native Land Court, and give Māori control of awarding land titles. The government sponsored a heavily modified version of the Bill – the Court was to do no more than take account of Native Committee recommendations. In fact, the Court paid little heed to the few underfunded Native Committees, and they had virtually no impact.

Tāwhai left the House in 1884. By the end of the decade he no longer believed the settler-dominated Parliament would uphold Māori rights and the Treaty of Waitangi. Accordingly he began to support Māori political movements. Among other things, he helped set up the Māori Kotahitanga Parliament, which first sat at Waitangi in 1892. The Kotahitanga movement advocated the abolition of the Native Land Court and all Maori land laws, and implementation of the Treaty of Waitangi. Tāwhai died in July 1894.

Adapted from the DNZB biography by Ranginui J. Walker

Hōne Mohi Tāwhai

I whānau mai a Hōne Mohi Tāwhai i te tau 1827, 1828 rānei ki Te Hokianga. Tekau mā rua pea tōna pakeke ka hainatia e tōna matua te Tiriti o Waitangi. Kāore noa iho i roa ka tū a ia hei kaiārahi o te iwi.

I te tekau tau atu i 1860 kei roto ia i tētahi rūnanga he mea whakatū nā Kāwana Kerei. Whāia, ka whakaingoatia a Tāwhai hei āteha mā te Kōti Whenua Māori. Kia tae ki te pokapū o te tekau tau atu i 1870 kua kore a ia e whakapono ki te Kōti Whenua Māori, kua karanga kē ia kia hoki te mana o ngā whenua me te mana hoko ki te Māori.

I te tau 1879 ka kuhu a Tāwhai hei Mema Pāremata Māori mō Te Tai Tokerau. Kāore i ārikarika tana kuhu ki ngā tautohetohe e pā ana ki te noho a ngā iwi. I ngā tau o 1881 me 1882, nāna i kōkiri tētahi Pire Whakamana i ngā Komiti Māori e mea ana ki te here i te Kōti Whenua Māori, ki te tuku ki te Māori te whakataunga o ngā taitara whenua. Ka nui ngā whakarerekētanga, kātahi anō te kāwanatanga ka tautoko i te pire e mea ana me aro noa iho te Kōti Whenua Māori ki ngā tūtohu a ngā Komiti Māori. Otirā, kāore i tino aro atu te Kōti ki ngā tūtohu a ngā Komiti Māori nei e mate ana i te kore pūtea. He komiti ēnei kāore he niho.

I te tau 1884 ka wehe a Tāwhai i te Pāremata. Kia tae ki te paunga o taua tekau tau, kua kore ia e whakapono ka puritia tonutia te mana o te Tiriti o Waitangi me ngā tika a te Māori e te Pāremata kikī ana i te Pākehā. Whai anō ka huri a ia ki te tautoko i ngā kaupapa tōrangapū a te Māori. Nāna i āwhina te whakatūnga o te Kotahitanga, te Pāremata Māori e whai ana kia whakakāhoretia te Kōti Whenua Māori me ngā ture whenua Māori, kia whakamanatia hokitia te Tiriti o Waitangi. Ka mate a Tāwhai i te marama o Hūrae i te tau 1894.

People: 
Ordered by: 
Taraia Ngakuti Te Tumuhuia
First Name: 
Ngakuti Te Tumuhuia
Surname: 
Taraia
Birthdate Unknown: 
?
Died Unknown: 
March 1872
Biography: 

Tāraia Ngākuti Te Tumuhuia (?–1872) belonged to the Hauraki tribes Ngāti Tamaterā and Ngāti Maru. Much of his life was taken up with warfare, and he remained a chief of the "old school" - rejecting the intrusion of Europeans in the traditional Māori world.

When Thomas Bunbury brought the Treaty of Waitangi to Hauraki, Taraia refused to sign. From then on he claimed the right to resolve disputes in the time-honoured way, by force if necessary.

In 1842 he attacked Ngāi Te Rangi, a Tauranga tribe who had long been enemies of Ngāti Tamaterā. Several Ngai Te Rāngi were killed or captured, and some were eaten. When challenged by Crown officials he insisted that as he had not signed the Treaty, his affairs were no business of the governor, especially as no Europeans were involved. Later, however, he accepted a Crown settlement of the dispute, returning prisoners and compensating the aggrieved Tauranga Māori.

Because of this and other such incidents colonial officials debated whether it was lawful to use force against Māori who had not signed the Treaty. Opinion was divided. Ultimately, the Colonial Office in London concluded that all Māori were British subjects, whether or not they had signed the Treaty. However, the colony had so few police and troops that it would be difficult to enforce British law. It was therefore decided that the Crown would rule by "moral suasion", and take a liberal attitude towards Māori inter-tribal matters.

In 1850 Tāraia became the leading chief of Ngāti Maru and Ngāti Tamaterā. In later life he successfully resisted pressure to open Hauraki lands to gold mining, but eventually lost the cause. In the 1860s Tāraia was in favour of the King Movement, but by this time he was too old and frail to go to war himself. However, a contingent of Ngāti Maru fought in the Waikato campaign, and Tāraia sent a cask of gunpowder to King Tāwhiao. He died at Thames in 1872; he was said to have been over 80.

Adapted from the DNZB biography by Angela Ballara

Tāraia Ngākuti Te Tumuhuia

Nō Ngāti Tamaterā me Ngāti Maru a Tāraia Ngākuti Te Tumuhuia (?-1872). Ko Tūmatauenga te atua ārahi i a Taraia i ōna rā, mate rawa. He rangatira ia nō te “ao kōhatu”, hei aha māna te Pākehā me tōna ao. I te kawenga a Thomas Bunbury i te Tiriti o Waitangi ki Hauraki, kāore a Taraia i haina. Mai i taua wā, ki te pā he raruraru ki a ia, māna tonu e whakatikatika i runga anō i ngā tikanga o tua whakarere.

I te tau 1842 ka whakaekengia e Tāraia a Ngāi Te Rangi, iwi o Tauranga. Kua roa e mauāhara ana ēnei iwi, a Ngāi Te Rangi me Ngāti Tamaterā, tētahi ki tētahi. Ka whakamatea, ka mauherea ētahi o Ngāi Te Rangi, kainga ana ētahi. I te weronga mai a ngā āpiha a te Karauna mō tēnei mahi, ko te whakautu a Tāraia pēnei; kāore ia i haina te Tiriti o Waitangi, nā reira ko wai te kāwana ki te aruaru he aha āna nekeneke, me te mea anō, kāore i whara he Pākehā i tēnei mahi. Heoi, nō muri mai ka whakaae ia ki te whakataunga a te Karauna i te raruraru. Ka tukua ngā mauhere, ka whakawhiwhia tētahi paremata ki ngā Māori o Tauranga.

Nā tēnei raruraru me ētahi atu i taua wā, ka wānanga ngā āpiha o te kāwanatanga mēnā ka āhei i raro i te ture te pakanga ki ngā Māori kāore i haina i te Tiriti. He whakaaro tō tēnā āpiha, he whakaaro tō tēnā āpiha. I te mutunga, ka whakatau te Tari mō ngā Koroni kei raro ngā Māori katoa i te maru o Peretānia, tae rawa atu ki te hunga kāore i haina i te Tiriti. Heoi, nā te tokoiti o ana pirihimana, ana hōia, me uaua ka whakapūmautia te ture Peretānia. Nā reira, ka pā ana te raruraru, ka huri kē te Karauna ki te kōrero mō te tika, mō te hē hei tāmi i ngā mahi kino; ki te tipu he tautohenga ā-iwi, kāore te Karauna mō te kuhu kau noa.

Tatū ki te tau 1850 ko Tāraia te rangatira nui o Ngāti Tamaterā, o Ngāti Maru. Ahakoa tana ngana ki te aukati i te keri koura ki te rohe o Hauraki, hauwarea. I te tekau tau atu i 1860, ka tautoko a Tāraia i te Kīngitanga, ahakoa te mea kua koroua rawa ia ki te whawhai. I roto tētahi taua o Ngāti Maru i ngā riri ki te riu ki Waikato, nā Tāraia hoki tētahi kāho paura i tuku ki a Kīngi Tāwhiao. Ka mate ia ki Pārāwai i te tau 1872. E ai ki te kōrero, neke atu i te 80 tana pakeke.

People: 
Ordered by: 
Taiwhanga, Hirini Rawiri
First Name: 
Hirini Rawiri
Surname: 
Taiwhanga
Birthdate Unknown: 
1832/1833?
Died: 
4 Aug 1905
Biography: 

Hirini Taiwhanga, of Ngāpuhi, was born in the Bay of Islands in 1832 or 1833. He was educated at the Waimate mission school and St. John's College, Auckland. He later worked as a carpenter, surveyor and schoolmaster.

From the mid-1870s he began to make his mark at tribal gatherings, vigorously speaking out against government policy and demanding that Treaty of Waitangi grievances be heard. He began to attract a following among Māori.

In 1882 he took a petition to Queen Victoria. He called for change in the laws that breached the Treaty, and for a Māori Parliament which might restrain the settler government. Taiwhanga and his companions were not allowed to wait on the Queen. Instead they presented their petition to the Secretary of State for the Colonies, the Earl of Kimberley. He denied any Crown responsibility for what happened in the self-governing New Zealand colony.

Despite this setback Taiwhanga prepared a second petition in 1883. It included a plea to end the Native Land Court and replace it with committees of chiefs. It also asked that mana (authority) over foreshores and fisheries be returned to Māori. This petition was also dismissed.

Taiwhanga was elected to Parliament as representative for Northern Māori in 1887. His main effort was in keeping Maori control over their remaining land. He died suddenly in 1890.

Taiwhanga's attempts to promote Maori political unity ultimately contributed to the formation of the Māori Kotahitanga movement by other leaders in the early 1890s.

Adapted from the DNZB biography by Claudia Orange

Hirini Taiwhanga

Nō te iwi o Ngā Puhi a Hirini Taiwhanga. I whānau ia ki Pēwhairangi i te tau 1832, 1833 rānei. Ka kuraina ia ki te kura mīhana i Waimate me te Kāreti o Hato Hoani i Ākarana. Nō muri ka mahi ia hei kāmura, hei kairūri, hei kura māhita hoki.

Atu i te pokapū o te tekau tau atu i 1870 ka hau te rongo mōna i ngā hui ā-iwi, e whakahē ana i ngā kaupapa here a te kāwanatanga, e whakahau ana kia whakarongohia ngā nawe o te iwi Māori i raro i te Tiriti o Waitangi. Ka nui haere ngā tautoko a te iwi Māori mōna.

I te tau 1882 ka kawea e ia tētahi pitihana ki a Kuini Wikitōria, e karanga ana kia hurihia ngā ture ka takahi i te Tiriti o Waitangi, kia tū tētahi Pāremata Māori hei tāmi i te apu whenua a te kāwanatanga. Kāore i whakaaetia kia tūtaki a Taiwhanga mā ki te Kuini, tūtaki kē rātou ki a Eara Kimberley, te Hekeretari mō ngā Koroni. Ka whakahē ia i te kōrero e mea ana he kawenga ō te Karauna mō Niu Tīreni, ki tāna, kua tū kē a Niu Tīreni hei koroni motuhake.

Ahakoa ēnei pōraruraru, i te tau 1883 ka taka a Taiwhanga i tana pitihana tuarua. Kei tana pitihana tuarua e tono ana kia whakamutua te Kōti Whenua Māori, mā tētahi rūnanga rangatira tōna tūranga hei whakakapi. I tua atu ka tono kia hoki te mana ki te takutai me ngā tauranga hī ika ki te Māori. Ka whiua anōtia tēnei o ngā pitihana.

I te tau 1887 ka pōtitia a Taiwhanga hei Mema Pāremata Māori mō te Tai Tokerau. Ka pau tana kaha kia puritia e te Māori ōna whenua. Nō te tau 1890 ka mate ohorere ia.

He wāhi nui tō ngā mahi a Taiwhanga ki te whakaohooho i te iwi kia whakakotahi; whāia, ko te whakatū a ētahi atu i te rōpū te Kotahitanga i te tīmatanga o te tekau tau atu i 1890.

People: 
Ordered by: 
Pere, Wiremu
Surname: 
Pere
First Name: 
Wiremu
Birthdate: 
7 Mar 1837
Died: 
9 Dec 1915
Biography: 

Wiremu Pere, of mixed Te Aitanga-a-Māhaki/Te Whanau a Kai/Rongowhakaata and European descent, was born in 1837 at Turanga (Gisborne).

When war came to the East Coast in 1865 Wī Pere remained a government supporter. At the same time, he protested against both the exile of Poverty Bay Māori without trial to the Chatham Islands, and the government's moves to confiscate their land.

When the rebel leader Te Kooti escaped from the Chathams in July 1868, Wi Pere helped government forces pursue him, although he had some sympathy for Te Kooti. He opposed the land confiscation which followed this conflict.

In the 1870s he supported the Repudiation movement, which aimed to reverse alleged fraudulent land purchases. He also opposed the Native Land Court giving land title to individuals, believing land should be owned by hapū (sub-tribes) or whanau (family). Through these activities he became an important Māori leader in the region.

Wī Pere later tried to help Māori cut through the complex land laws and difficulties associated with multiple ownership of land. He also worked to ensure that they could finance land development. From 1880 he and W. L. Rees, a lawyer for the Repudiation movement, persuaded many East Coast Māori to hand over some of their lands to a trust. The land would then be sold or leased, and the money used for Māori land development. But the scheme failed, partly because of economic depression, and hostility from politicians.

However, Wī Pere remained concerned that Māori keep their lands and farm it themselves. He gained wide support, and was elected to Parliament representing Eastern Māori in 1884. He spoke strongly against the Native Land Court and dealing with individuals rather than tribal groups. He was also in favour of giving Māori communities control over their lands through elected "block committees".

In 1887 he was defeated by James Carroll. Pere re-entered Parliament in 1894. Once again he strongly criticised the government's Māori land policies. He called for a boycott of the Native Land Court and an end to land sales and leasing. He continued to press for greater Māori control over land. He also joined the Kotahitanga movement and supported its demand for a separate Māori Parliament, abolition of the Māori land laws and implementation of the Treaty of Waitangi.

Pere lost his seat to the young Āpirana Ngata in 1905. In 1907 he was appointed to the Legislative Council, where he remained until 1912. He died in 1915.

Adapted from the DNZB biography by Alan Ward

Wiremu Pere

Heke ai a Wiremu Pere i ngā kāwai o Te Aitanga a Māhaki, o Te Whānau a Kai, o Rongowhakaata, o te Pākehā. I whānau ia ki Tūranganui-a-Kiwa i te tau 1837. I te tau 1865 ka mura ngā ahi o te riri ki Te Tai Rāwhiti. Ka kuhu a Wī Pere ki te taha o te kāwanatanga. Heoi anō, ka tohe ia mō ngā Māori o Tūranganui-a-Kiwa ka whiua ki Wharekauri kāore he whakawākanga, me te kimi huarahi a te kāwanatanga ki te tango i ō rātou whenua.

I te marama o Hūrae i te tau 1868 ka rere a Te Kooti mā i Wharekauri. Ko Wī Pere tētahi i te taua o te kāwanatanga i tukua kia whai i a ia, ahakoa tana pukuaroha ki a Te Kooti. Ka ātete ia i ngā raupatunga whenua ka whai i tēnei riri.

I te tekau tau atu i 1870 ka tautoko a Wī Pere i te rōpū Whakahētanga Hoko Whenua, e aru ana ki te huripoki i ngā hokonga whenua hīanga. Kāore hoki ia i whakaae ki te Kōti Whenua Māori me tana tuku whenua ki te tangata takitahi; ko tāna i whakapono ai, me noho kē ngā whenua ki raro i ngā whakahaere o te whānau, o te hapū. Nā ēnei kaupapa nui āna, ka kake a ia hei rangatira whai mana i te rohe.

Whāia, ka ngana a Wī Pere ki te āwhina i ētahi atu Māori kia whakamatara i ngā ture whenua Māori whīwhiwhi, me ngā taumahatanga ka puta i te taitara whenua takitahi. I rapu huarahi ia e tareka ai he pūtea hei whakapai, hei whakamahi i ngā whenua. Mai i te tau 1880 ka huri rāua ko W. L. Rees, he rōia mō te rōpū Whakahētanga Hoko Whenua, ki te whakawherewhere i te rahi o ngā Māori o Te Tai Rāwhiti kia tukua ētahi o ō rātou whenua ki tētahi kaitiaki whenua. Ka hokona, ka rīhitia rānei ētahi o ngā whenua, ko te moni ka puta hei utu i te whakawhanaketanga o ngā whenua ka toe. Heoi, ka hinga te kaupapa, nā te paheketanga o te ōhanga me te taraweti o te hunga tōrangapū.

Hāunga tērā, i pumau tonu a Wī Pere kia whakahaerehia, kia pāmutia e ngā Māori ō rātou ake whenua. Ka whānui ngā tautoko mōna; waihoki, ka kuhu ia ki te Pāremata hei Mema Māori mō Te Tai Rāwhiti i te tau 1884. Ka kaha tana whakahē i ngā mahi a te Kōti Whenua Māori, me te korero ki ngā tāngata takitahi kāpā te hapū, whānau, iwi rānei. I tautoko ia i te whakaaro ki te tuku mā ngā hapori Māori e whakahaere ō rātou whenua mā roto i ētahi “komiti poraka” ka pōtitia.

I te tau 1887 ka hinga ia ki a Timi Kara. Ka hoki anō a Wī Pere hei Mema Pāremata i te tau 1894. Ka ātete anō ia i ngā kaupapa here a te kāwanatanga e pā ana ki ngā whenua o te Māori. Ka puta tana kōrero kia kaua e manaakitia te Kōti Whenua Māori, kia kati te hoko me te rīhi whenua. Ka whakahau tonu ia kia nui ake te mana whakahaere o te Māori i runga i ōna anō whenua. Ka kuhu ia ki te Kotahitanga e karanga ana kia tū he Pāremata Māori, kia whakakorehia ngā ture whenua Māori, kia whakamanatia te Tiriti o Waitangi.

Ka hinga a Pere i te pōti o te tau 1905 ki a Āpirana Ngata. I te tau 1907 ka tohungia ia ki te Kaunihera Ture, ā, tae rawa ki te tau 1912. Ka mate ia i te tau 1915.

People: 
Ordered by: 
Parata, Wiremu Te Kākākura
First Name: 
Wiremu
Surname: 
Parata
Birthdate Unknown: 
1830s
Died: 
29 Sep 1906
Biography: 

Wiremu Te Kākākura Parata, of Ngāti Toa and Te Āti Awa, was born on Kapiti Island in the 1830s. He grew up in a time of great social and political change. During the 1860s he became involved in politics, and was elected to Parliament as the member for Western Māori in 1871.

He was an astute politician and a skilled orator and debater. He often urged the assembly, dominated by European settlers, to pass laws that took account of Māori needs and aspirations. But many Māori were highly critical when, after being promoted to the Executive Council in 1872, he stopped speaking out for them.

After leaving Parliament Parata took part in court claims over Māori land. His most notable case, in 1877, was Wi Parata v the Bishop of Wellington. This concerned the gift of Ngāti Toa land to the Anglican Bishop for a Māori school at Porirua. The Church had received a Crown grant of land in 1850, but no school was built.

Parata sought a return of the land. In his judgment Chief Justice Prendergast famously declared that Māori were a primitive tribal society possessing no laws capable of recognition or protection by the Courts. The Treaty of Waitangi, moreover, could not call into being a native title that did not exist. As such he held that the Treaty, in a legal sense, was no more than a 'simple nullity'. Parata died in 1906.

Adapted from the DNZB biography by Hohepa Solomon

Wiremu Te Kākākura Parata

Nō ngā iwi o Ngāti Toa, o Te Āti Awa a Wiremu Te Kākākura Parata. I whānau mai ia ki Kapiti i te tekau tau atu i 1830. I tana taiohinga haruru ana te whenua i ngā panonitanga nui ka pā mai ki te noho me te ora o te tangata. I te tekau tau atu i 1860 ka kuhu ia ki ngā kaupapa tōrangapū o te wā, ā, i te tau 1871 ka pōtitia ia hei Mema Pāremata Māori mō Te Tai Hau-ā-uru.

He māia a Parata ki ngā mahi tōrangapū; he reo tatakī, he tohunga ki te whiriwhiri kōrero. Ka rite ngā wā ka whakahau ia i te whare kikī ana i te Pākehā kia whakamana i ngā ture ka aro ki ngā hiahia me ngā tūmanako o te Māori. Hāunga tērā, kei reira anō ngā whakapae a ngā Māori e mea ana i tōna kakenga ki te Kaunihera Whāiti i te tau 1872, ka mutu tana hāpai i ngā take Māori.

I te wehenga o Parata i te Pāremata, ka whai wāhi ia ki ētahi kerēme whenua Māori i ngā kōti. Ka tū te kerēme nui i te tau 1877, ko Wi Parata v Bishop of Wellington, mō ētahi whenua nā Ngāti Toa i tuku ki te Pīhopa Mihinare hei whakatū kura Māori. Ka whiwhi te Hāhi i tētahi pito whenua mai i te Karauna i te tau 1850, heoi, kāore i whakatūria he kura.

Ka tono a Parata kia whakahokia ngā whenua o Ngāti Toa. Ka puta te whakatau rongonui a te Kaiwhakawā Matua a James Prendergast e mea ana he iwi mohoao te iwi Māori, kāore ōna ture hei aronga mā tētahi Kōti. I tua atu, ka kī ia, kāore he mana ā-ture o te Tiriti. Ka mate a Parata i te tau 1906.

People: 
Ordered by: 
Ormsby, John
Surname: 
Ormsby
First Name: 
John
Birthdate: 
6 Nov 1854
Died: 
11 Jun 1927
Biography: 

John Ormsby was born in 1854. His father was European. His mother was of Ngāti Maniapoto.

The 1880s were a time of growing conflict between King Tāwhiao and Ngāti Maniapoto leaders such as Rewi Maniapoto. King Tāwhiao refused to negotiate with the government until it had dealt with land grievances. Rewi and Ngāti Maniapoto, however, favoured a compromise. The government was willing to make some concessions, as it wanted to build a main trunk railway line across Ngāti Maniapoto territory.

The Native Committees Act 1883 gave Ngāti Maniapoto an opportunity to engage with the government. The Act provided for Māori committees which might assist the Native Land Court in its judgments over land title. Other Māori, bitterly disappointed that the committees had no real power, did not support them. But Ngāti Maniapoto tried hard to make their committee work.

Ormsby was the first chairman of the Kāwhia committee, which was by far the most successful. Although still a young man, Ormsby was chosen because he was a highly skilled speaker, and able to deal with Europeans.

In 1884 Ormsby also took part in the so-called 1885 Kikikihi agreement. The government wanted land for the main trunk railway. In return for Ngāti Maniapoto cooperation it offered a number of concessions to Ormsby and the other Ngāti Maniapoto chiefs – it would give the Kāwhia committee more power, reorganise the Native Land Court to remove its worst excesses, and allow Māori to keep ownership of minerals. Perhaps most importantly, Māori would not be charged rates on their lands until it was in production or under lease.

This led to a further rift with the King movement. This agreement is considered to have been a success in the short term, but the Native Land Court was not significantly reformed and later had the some negative impacts on Ngāti Maniapoto land tenure and land ownership as elsewhere in the country.

In 1886 Ormsby became an assessor of the Magistrates Court, and a Native Land Court assessor. In 1920 he rejoined the Kingitanga, and became an adviser to the King Te Rata. He died in 1927.

Adapted from the DNZB biography by M. J. Ormsby

People: 
Ordered by: 
Nireaha Tāmaki
First Name: 
Nireaha
Surname: 
Tāmaki
Birthdate Unknown: 
1935-37?
Died: 
3 Jul 1911
Biography: 

Nireaha Tāmaki, of Rangitāne and Ngāti Kahungunu, was born on the Manawatū River some time in the mid-1830s. He is perhaps best known for his bitter struggle to retain lands within the large Mangatainoka block, which the government was determined to purchase for railway construction.

The conflict reached a head in 1894. The Crown had acquired subdivisions of the large Mangatainoka block from various owners identified by the Native Land Court. Because of a survey error this land included about 5,000 acres (2000 hectares) that had not passed through the Court. Nireaha claimed a customary Māori title over this area which had not been extinguished by the Native Land Court or the subsequent government purchase. The Court of Appeal heard the case, known as Nireaha Tāmaki v Baker. Following an earlier precedent, Wī Parata v Bishop of Wellington, the Court claimed that as Māori were a 'primitive' tribal society they could not possess any customary law recognisable by the Courts. Moreover, the Crown’s land dealings with Māori were acts of state and were not subject to judicial review.

Nireaha appealed to the Privy Council in 1900. The New Zealand Court of Appeal decision was reversed. The Law Lords rejected the argument that there was no Māori customary law, and commented that it was 'rather late in the day' for New Zealand courts to adopt such a view, given that several existing New Zealand statutes, including the nineteenth-century Native Lands Acts, referred to Māori custom. The New Zealand Court of Appeal was also adjudged to have jurisdiction over the question of whether the land in dispute had been ceded to the Crown. It would be an understatement to say that the New Zealand judiciary was unhappy with this decision.

The government's response was to limit Māori rights to investigate the government’s land purchases through the courts. However, the Privy Council’s judgment was important because it acknowledged that there was a system of traditional Māori land ownership, which deserved recognition. Nireaha's involvement in this case helped him remain as a leader within Māoridom, even though it impoverished him. He died in 1911.

Adapted from the DNZB biography by Angela Ballara

Te reo version

Nō nga iwi o Rangitāne me Ngāti Kahungunu a Nireaha Tāmaki. I whānau mai ia ki ngā tahatika o te awa o Manawatū i te pokapū o te tekau atu atu i 1830. Mōhiotia whānuitia ai ia mō tana okeoke kia pupuri i te poraka whenua o Mangatainoka, i ngana rā te kāwanatanga kia hoko mai hei whakatakoto rerewē.

Ka eke te tohenga nei ki tōna taumata i te tau 1894. I hokona e te Karauna ētahi wāhanga o te poraka o Mangatainoka mai i ētahi o te hunga whai pānga i tohungia e te Kōti Whenua Māori. Nā tētahi hapa i te wā ka rūria te whenua nei, ka kuhuna tētahi whenua e 5000 eka (2000 heketea) te rahi kāore anō kia kawea mā te Kōti. Ka taunaha a Nireaha i ēnei whenua hei whenua papatipu, i te mea kāore rā anō kia kawea ki mua i te Kōti Whenua Māori, ahakoa kua hokona e te kāwanatanga. Ka rongohia te take nei e te Kōti Pīra arā, Nireaha v Baker. Ka whai te kōti i te whakataunga o te take Wī Parata v Bishop of Wellington, ka whakapae te kōti mō te Māori he iwi “mohoao”, e kore e aro ngā Kōti ki āna tikanga. I tua atu, he take kāwanatanga ngā whitiwhitinga kōrero a te Karauna me te Māori mō te whenua, e kore e taea te arotake i raro i te ture.

I te tau 1900 ka pīra a Nireaha ki te Kaunihera Motuhake a te Kuini. Ka takahurihia te whakatau a te Kōti Pīra o Aotearoa. Kāore i arongia e ngā Rōra Ture ngā kōrero e mea ana kāore he tikanga a te Māori, me tā rātou kī anō he tōmuri rawa kia pēnei te titiro a ngā kōti o Aotearoa, i te mea kei roto tonu i ētahi ture o Aotearoa, tae atu ki ngā Ture Whenua Māori o ngā 1800, ngā kōrero mō ngā tikanga Māori. I tua atu, ka kī anō rātou he wāhi tonu tō te Kōti Pīra o Aotearoa ki ngā whakawākanga mō ngā whenua ka tukua ki te Karauna. Kāore rā i rata te rāngai ture o Aotearoa ki ēnei whakatau.

Ko te urupare a te kāwanatanga, ko te tāmi i te āheinga o te Māori ki te rangahau i ngā hokonga whenua a te kāwanatanga mā roto i ngā kōti. Hāunga tērā, he mea nui tonu te whakatau a te Kaunihera Motuhake a te Kuini, i te mea i whakaae ia i reira tonu ngā tikanga a te Māori mō te whenua – he pūnaha e tika ana kia arohia. Nā te whakawākanga nei i tiketike ai a Nireaha i te ao Māori, ahakoa te pau o ana moni. Nō te tau 1911 ka mate ia.

People: 
Ordered by: 
Ngāpua, Hōne Heke
Surname: 
Ngāpua
First Name: 
Hōne Heke
Birthdate: 
6 Jun 1869
Died: 
9 Feb 1909
Biography: 

Hōne Heke Ngāpua, of Ngāpuhi, was born in 1869 at Kaikohe. He was named after his great-uncle, Hōne Heke Pōkai, who had opposed Crown sovereignty in the mid-1840s and famously (and repeatedly) cut down the British flagstaff at Russell.

Ngāpua attended native schools and St Stephen’s school in Parnell, Auckland. He later worked as a clerk in an Auckland law firm. In the 1880s he became involved in the Kotahitanga movement. This aimed for Māori control over Māori lands and a degree of local self-government through a Māori Parliament.

In 1893, while only in his early 20s, Hōne Heke addressed the Kotahitanga Parliament. He showed a sophisticated understanding of the Kotahitanga concept, and skilfully expressed the key issues facing Māori.

Through his obvious ability and skills as a speaker he was elected to the House of Representatives later in 1893, representing Northern Māori. In 1894 he introduced the Native Rights Bill. It sought a constitution for Māori, implementation of the Treaty of Waitangi, and a separate Māori Parliament. Although supported by many tribes, the bill was not passed. But it influenced some later legislation, in particular the Māori Councils Act 1900.

In 1898 a number of Māori residents of the Waimā Valley, Hokianga, began a protest led by Hōne Tōia. They refused to pay the dog tax and other taxes imposed by the government and local bodies. The government sent out troops, and an armed conflict threatened to break out. However, Hōne Heke stepped in to prevent bloodshed, and Tōia and his men laid down their weapons and surrendered. Although on the surface this incident was about rates and taxation it was, on a deeper level, one of the final challenges to Crown sovereignty.

Hōne Heke remained a tireless supporter of the Kotahitanga movement until his early death of tuberculosis, at the age of 40, in 1909.

Adapted from the DNZB biography by Freda Rankin Kawharu 

Hōne Heke Ngāpua

I whānau mai a Hōne Heke Ngāpua i Kaikohe i te tau 1869. Ko Ngā Puhi tōna iwi. Tapaina ai ia ki tōna koroua a Hōne Heke Pōkai, i ātete rā ki te mana o te Karauna i te tekau tau atu i 1840, nāna hoki te pouhaki o Peretānia ki Kororāreka i topetope.

Ka kuraina a Ngāpua ki ngā kura Māori, ki te Kura o Tīpene i Parnell, Ākarana. Nō muri ka mahi ia hei karaka i tētahi tari rōia i Ākarana. I te tekau tau atu i 1880 ka kuhu a Ngāpua ki te Kotahitanga, he rōpū e whai ana kia whakahokia te mana motuhake o te Māori ki runga i ōna whenua, ki runga hoki i ētahi o ngā whakahaere, mā roto i tētahi Pāremata Māori.

I te tau 1893, i te wā e rua tekau mā aha noa iho ōna tau, ka kauhau a Hōne Heke ki te Pāremata o te Kotahitanga. Ka whakaatu ia i tōna mārama ki te ariā o te Kotahitanga, ki ngā take nui hoki kei mua i te iwi Māori.

Nā tōna tohungatanga ki te whiri kōrero, ka pōtitia a ia hei Mema Pāremata Māori mō Te Tai Tokerau i te tau 1893. I te tau 1894, nāna te Pire Tika Māori i tāpae ki mua i te Pāremata. E tono ana te pire mō tētahi kaupapa taketake mō te Māori, kia whakamanatia te Tiriti o Waitangi, kia tū hoki he Pāremata Māori. Ahakoa ngā tautoko mai a te maha o ngā iwi, kāore i ture te pire. Heoi, ka whai wāhi ētahi o ana whakaritenga ki ngā hanganga ture o muri, pērā i te Ture Kaunihera Māori o 1900.

I te tau 1898 nā Hōne Tōia i ārahi ngā Māori o te riu o Waimā i Te Hokianga kia kaua e utu i ngā tāke kurī me ētahi atu tāke nā te kāwanatanga me te kaunihera ā-rohe i uta ki runga i a rātou. Ka tonoa e te kāwanatanga āna hōia ki te tāmi i tēnei takahi i te ture. Ko te kuhunga atu tērā o Ngāpua ki te haukoti i te rerenga o te toto; ka tukua e Tōia mā ā rātou rākau ki raro. Ahakoa e ātetetia ana ngā reiti me ngā tāke i utaina, ko te pūtake kē o te riri, ko te whakatuma ki te mana o te Karauna. Koia anō tētahi o ngā wero whakamutunga i tēnei mana.

Ka pūmau a Ngāpua ki te Kotahitanga, tatū rawa ki tōna matenga tōmua i te tau 1909 i te mate kohi. E 40 tōna pakeke.

People: 
Ordered by: 
Matua, Hēnare
First Name: 
Hēnare
Surname: 
Matua
Birthdate Unknown: 
?
Died Unknown: 
1894
Biography: 

The Ngāti Kahungunu chief Hēnare Matua  first came into contact with Europeans in the 1840s, when he arranged some land leases for European squatters. Although he signed the Waipukurau land deed in 1851, he later opposed the sale of further land.

Although Matua had an early link with the King Movement, and opposed land sales, in the 1860's he supported the government against the Hauhau – members of the Pai Mārire religion who opposed the sale of land to Europeans. However, he did not become directly involved in the fighting.

By 1871 Matua was calling for government and private land purchases in Hawke’s Bay to be reversed, claiming they were tainted by fraud or sharp dealing. He soon became a key figure in the Repudiation movement, based in Hawke's Bay. The movement grew out of a widespread Māori dissatisfaction with many land transactions.

Matua also regarded the Native Land Court as little more than an agent for land purchasers. He demanded that tribal rūnanga (committees) control title approvals and land alienation. Partly as a result of his campaign, the government set up a commission of inquiry in 1873. Matua presented a long list of grievances to the commission, but no land was restored to Māori.

Matua continued to build the Repudiation movement, however, supported by a number of other tribes and some influential Europeans. He consistently stressed that compensation would be achieved by lawful means and not through violence. Even though they were never given any legal authority, local Hawke’s Bay rūnanga were, by 1875, settling a wide range of disputes. They were also challenging the authority of the Native Land Court.

Matua remained an energetic advocate for his people. But the Repudiation movement and the runanga began to dwindle after the mid-1870s because of inadequate funds and a lack of success against the government's inflexibility. Matua died in Hastings in 1894.

Adapted from the DNZB biography by Angela Ballara

Henare Matua

He rangatira a Hēnare Matua (?-1894) o te iwi o Ngāti Kahungunu. I te tekau tau atu i 1840 ka tūtaki tuatahi ia ki te Pākehā, i a ia ka whakarite i ētahi rīhi whenua mō ngā Pākehā noho whenua noa. I haina ia i te hokonga whenua mō Waipukurau i te tau 1851, heoi nō muri ka puta ana whakahē.

I te pueanga ake o te Kīngitanga, ka tautokona e Matua; ka whakahē hoki ia i ngā hokonga whenua. Ahakoa tērā, i te tau 1860 ka tū ia ki te taha o te kāwanatanga i ngā riri ki te Hauhau e ātete ana i te hoko o ngā whenua ki te Pākehā. Heoi anō, kāore ia i urutomo ki ngā whawhai.

Kia tae ki te tau 1871, kua puta te kōrero a Matua kia whakakāhoretia ngā hokonga whenua ki te kāwanatanga me ētahi atu i Te Matau a Māui, nā te mea he whānako aua hokonga. Taro ake, ka eke ia hei tangata nui i roto i te rōpū Whakahētanga Hoko Whenua, ko tōna pokapu kei Te Matau a Māui. I tipu ake te rōpū nei i te pōuri o te iwi Māori ki te maha o ngā hokonga whenua.

Ka titiro a Matua ki te Kōti Whenua Māori ānō kei te mahi te kōti mā ngā kaihoko whenua. I whakahau ia mā ngā rūnanga ā-iwi e whakahaere ngā whakaaetanga taitara me ngā hokonga whenua. Nā tēnei take me ētahi atu, ka whakatūria e te kāwanatanga he kōmihana uiui i te tau 1873. He maha ngā nawe i tāpaea e Matua ki mua i te kōmihana, hauwarea; kāore he whenua i whakahokia ki te iwi Māori.

Ka mahi haere a Matua kia tipu te rōpū Whakahētanga Hoko Whenua. I āwhinatia te kaupapa e ētahi atu iwi me ētahi Pākehā whai mana. Ka rite tana whakaputa i te kōrero, ko te ara o te ture te ara tika ki te rapu paremata, kāpā te ara o Tū. Kāore he mana o ngā rūnanga i raro i te ture. Hāunga tērā, tatū ki te tau 1875, he maha ngā take kei te haria ki mua i ngā rūnanga o Te Matau a Māui hei whakatau mā rātou. I tua atu, ka whakatumatuma ngā rūnanga i te mana o te Kōti Whenua Māori.

Tino kaha a Matua ki te mahi mō tōna iwi. Heoi, kia tae ki te pokapū o te tekau tau atu i 1870 ka ngoikore haere te kaupapa Whakahētanga Hoko Whenua, tae atu ki ngā rūnanga, nā te iti o te pūtea me te ngākau kōhatu o te kāwanatanga. Ka mate a Matua ki Heretaunga i te tau 1894.

People: 
Ordered by: 
Maniapoto, Rewi Manga
First Name: 
Rewi Manga
Surname: 
Maniapoto
Birthdate Unknown: 
?
Died: 
29 Jun 1894
Biography: 

Rewi Maniapoto was of the Ngāti Paretekawa hapu (sub-tribe) of Ngāti Maniapoto. He was trained in the traditional customs of his people, and learned to read and write at the Wesleyan mission station at Te Kōpua.

In the 1850s he was a leading supporter of the King Movement. His people fought the government alongside Taranaki Māori in 1860–61. This experience convinced him that the government intended to overturn Māori rangatiratanga (authority/chieftainship) and take land at any cost. He organised the support of many among Ngāti Maniapoto and Waikato, against the views of the more moderate Kingite leaders.

Rewi took a leading role in the Waikato war (1863–64). He fought with great bravery and skill despite overwhelming odds. When called upon to surrender at Orākau in 1864 he uttered the famous words, 'Ka whawhai tonu mātou, Ake! Ake! Ake! - We will fight on for ever and ever!'

After several defeats the Māori King and his Waikato followers took refuge in Ngāti Maniapoto territory, where they remained for many years. Rewi later played a key role in establishing and expanding the Rohe Pōtae (King Country). In this vast area, extending into western Taupō and upper Wanganui, the King’s authority was supreme.

By the late 1860s Rewi had come to the view that Māori could not win back their mana (authority) by force. However, they did not reach a peace agreement with the government until 1878. Ngati Maniapoto did not suffer large-scale confiscation, although Waikato Maori lost 1.2 million acres (nearly half a million hectares).

In 1882 Rewi broke with the King Movement. The King insisted that there should be no negotiations with the government until the confiscation issue had been resolved. But Rewi agreed to government surveys within the Rohe Pōtae, and discussed the construction of the main trunk railway through the King Country, in exchange for a number of concessions to the government. Rewi’s actions ultimately opened the way for extensive government purchases in the King Country, despite his attempts to control the speed and scale of land alienation. After this his influence declined, and he died in 1894.

Adapted from the DNZB biography by Manuka Henare

Rewi Manga Maniapoto

I whānau mai a Rewi Maniapoto (?-1894) ki roto i a Ngāti Paretekawa, hapū o Ngāti Maniapoto. I ākona ia ki ngā tikanga, ki ngā kōrero tuku iho o tōna iwi. Ka ako ia ki te pānui me te tuhi i te mīhana Wēteriana i Te Kōpua.

He kaha tana tautoko i te Kīngitanga i te tekau tau atu i 1850. Ka whawhai tōna iwi ki te taha o ngā iwi o Taranaki i te 1860-61. I konei ka tipu te whakaaro ki a ia, ko te hiahia o te kāwanatanga kia turakina te rangatiratanga o te Māori, e tareka ai te tango i ōna whenua. Nāna te rahi o Ngāti Maniapoto me Waikato i whakatikatika ki te tautoko i te hunga kei te whawhai ki te kāwanatanga, hāunga ngā māharahara o ētahi o ngā rangatira o te Kīngitanga.

Ko Rewi tētahi o ngā kaingārahu i ngā riri ki te riu o Waikato i ngā tau 1863, 1864. Ahakoa te tini hōia, ka hau te rongo mō te māia, te tohungatanga o Rewi ki te matawhāura. I te riri ki Ōrākau, ka tono ngā hōia kia tuku a Rewi mā i ā rātou pū ki raro. Ka whakautua e Rewi tēnei tono me te kōrero rongonui, "Ka whawhai tonu mātou. Ake! Ake! Ake!"

Ka hingahinga rā ngā taua o te Kīngitanga i ngā pakanga ki ngā hōia. Taro ake, ka rere te Kīngi Māori me tōna iwi ki te rohe o Ngāti Maniapoto whakamarumaru ai. Ka hia tau e noho ana rātou ki reira. Ko Rewi tētahi o ngā rangatira nā rātou i whakaū, i whakawhānui Te Rohe Pōtae. Ka toro tēnei rohe ki ngā tahatika o te moana o Taupō ki te uru, ki te hikuwai o te awa o Wanganui. Kāore he mana i tua atu i tō te Kīngi i tēnei rohe.

Kia tae ki te paunga o te tekau tau atu i 1860, kua kite a Rewi e kore e taea e te riri te whakahoki mai i te mana o te iwi. Heoi, nō te tau 1878 kātahi anō ka mau te rongo me te kāwanatanga. Kāore i kaha raupatutia ngā whenua o Ngāti Maniapoto, heoi 1.2 miriona eka (tata ki te haurua miriona heketea) o ngā whenua o Waikato i raupatutia.

I te tau 1882 ka maunu a Rewi i te Kīngitanga. Ko te whakahau a te Kīngi kia kaua te iwi e whitiwhiti kōrero me te kāwanatanga kia ea rā anō te take o ngā whenua i raupatutia. Heoi, ka whakaae a Rewi ki ngā rūri whenua a te kāwanatanga ki roto i te Rohe Pōtae, ka whitiwhiti kōrero hoki ia mō te whakatakoto rerewē. Hei utu mō tēnei, ka tukua e te kawanatanga ētahi painga. Nā ngā mahi a Rewi ka tuwhera te Rohe Pōtae ki ngā hokonga whenua a te kāwanatanga, ahakoa tana ngana kia āta haere ngā hokonga, kia kaua e tino nui te whenua ka hokona. Whāia, ka memeha tōna awe. Ka mate ia i te tau 1894.

People: 
Ordered by: 
Māngakahia, Hāmiora
First Name: 
Hāmiora
Surname: 
Māngakahia
Birthdate Unknown: 
1838
Died: 
4 Jun 1918
Biography: 

Hāmiora Mangakāhia, of Ngāti Whanaunga, was born in 1838 on the eastern Coromandel Peninsula. Like many of his contemporaries he was raised as a Christian, but was also trained in the genealogy and traditions of his tribe.

For the rest of his life he struggled to retain his family lands, rich in kauri and other timber. He was generally unsuccessful, and developed a lasting distrust of Europeans.

He became an expert in Native Land Court procedure, and was invited to conduct cases from far afield. Nevertheless he was not a supporter of the Court, which he saw as a destroyer of Māori land and rangatiratanga (authority/chieftainship).

In 1891 he told the Native Land Laws Commission (the Rees-Carroll Commission) that the Court should be abolished.

Mangakāhia's major achievement was his contribution to the Kotahitanga movement. This pushed for the abolition of the Native Land Court and all Māori land legislation. These would be replaced by Māori committees which would settle disputes according to Māori traditional law.

The movement also sought a degree of local self-government through a Māori (Kotahitanga) Parliament. According to Mangakāhia this Parliament did not challenge the British Queen, but might allow Māori to control their lands and manage their own affairs. In his view such independence was protected and guaranteed by the Treaty of Waitangi, and by the unused section 71 of the Constitution Act 1852. This allowed Māori customary law to be used in predominantly Māori districts.

In 1892 Mangakāhia was elected Premier of the Kotahitanga Parliament. His first step was to ask for a petition to be sent to the colonial Parliament. This called for the abolition of all laws relating to Māori land, and for Māori to control their own affairs. He continued to take an active role in the Kotahitanga Parliament and land issues until his death in 1918.

Hamiora's third wife was the suffragist Meri Te Tai Mangakāhia

Adapted from the DNZB biography by Angela Ballara

People: 
Ordered by: 
Mangakāhia, Meri Te Tai
Surname: 
Mangakāhia
First Name: 
Meri Te Tai
Birthdate: 
22 May 1868
Died: 
10 Oct 1920
Biography: 

Meri Te Tai Mangakāhia, of Te Rarawa, was born in the Hokianga district. Her husband, Hamiora Mangakāhia of Hauraki, was elected Premier of the Māori Kotahitanga parliament in 1892.

At a meeting of the parliament in Hawke’s Bay in 1893, Meri Te Tai presented a motion requesting that women participate in the selection of members. She later addressed the parliament on her motion – the first woman known to have done so.

During her speech she urged that women should not only be allowed to vote, but also to sit in the Māori parliament as members. Many Māori women owned land in their own right and were entitled to have their say in decisions affecting them. The matter lapsed, but Meri Te Tai remained involved in Māori politics and welfare, and probably took part in the women’s committees of the Kotahitanga (Māori unity) movement, forerunners of the Māori Women’s Welfare League. Meri Te Tai died of influenza in 1920, aged 52.

Adapted by Jamie Mackay from the DNZB biography by Angela Ballara

People: 
Ordered by: 
Kawiti, Te Ruki
First Name: 
Te Ruki
Surname: 
Kawiti
Birthdate Unknown: 
1770s
Died: 
3 May 1854
Biography: 

Kawiti, probably born in the 1770s in northern New Zealand, was a notable Ngāpuhi chief and warrior and a skilled military tactician.

In 1840, when William Hobson arrived in New Zealand, Kawiti vigorously resisted British rule. He did not agree to the Treaty on 6 February, when others signed at Waitangi, but his people pressed him to sign, which he did, albeit reluctantly, at a special meeting with Hobson in May 1840. On 11 March 1845, though, he joined forces with Hone Heke at Kororāreka when his men created a diversion while the flagstaff on Maiki Hill was cut down for the fourth and last time.

The northern war of 1845-46 involved the forces of Kawiti and Heke against British troops and Māori allies. The British launched three major expeditions into the hinterland of the Bay of Islands. The first, at Puketutu, was a Māori victory, despite British claims to the contrary. At Ohaeawai, he constructed a carefully designed pa that withstood a British attack on 1 July 1845. Outnumbered six to one, the Maori forces nevertheless inflicted a serious defeat on the British. For five months fighting ceased while Governor Robert FitzRoy tried to arrange a peace but Kawiti rejected the peace terms.

When George Grey arrived in November 1845 to replace FitzRoy, he gave Kawiti and Heke five days to respond to the peace offer and organised an expedition against Kawiti's new pa. Kawiti drew British troops to battle on a fairly inaccessible site at Ruapekapeka, which took nearly a month for 1100 men to cover the 15 miles from the Bay of Islands. After heavy bombardment over two weeks, British troops entered the pā on Sunday, 11 January 1846 to find it apparently deserted. Detachments of Kawiti's men had slipped away to lure the troops into the bush. The British suffered 45 casualties while 30 Maori were killed or wounded. The pā was abandoned, and although it was not an outright victory for the British, Kawiti and Heke negotiated a peace at the end of January. These victories were the result of Kawiti's skill at trench warfare and military tactics.

Kawiti died at Waiomio on 5 May 1854.

Adapted from the DNZB biography by Kene Hine Te Uira Martin 

Te Ruki Kawiti

I whānau mai pea a Kawiti i ngā tekau tau mai i 1770, i Te Tai Tokerau. He tino rangatira ia nō Ngā Puhi, he toa tū taua, he tangata mōhio ki te whakahaere pakanga. I te tau 1840, i te taenga mai a Te Hopihona ki Aotearoa, ka ātete tonu a Kawiti ki te mana whakahaere o Ingarangi ki tēnei motu. Kāore ia i whakaae ki te haina i te Tiriti i te 6 o Pēpuere i te taha o ētahi atu, engari nā ngā ākinga a tōna iwi, ka hui takitahi ia ki a Te Hopihona i te marama o Mei 1840, hainatia atu ana, ahakoa i te hopohopo tana ngākau. I te 11 o Māehe 1845, ka tū tahi ia me Hone Heke i Kororāreka, ka whakatītaha ana tāngata i ngā hōia. Nā konei i wātea ai te huarahi ki te puke ki Maiki, kia taea ai te pou haki te tapahi. Ko te topenga tuawhā tēnei, te topenga whakamutunga.

Ka uru ngā ope a Kawiti rāua ko Heke ki te pakanga i Te Tai Tokerau (1845-46), he pakanga ki ngā hōia o Ingarangi me ngā iwi kūpapa. E toru rawa ngā taua a te taha Ingarihi ki te tuawhenua o Pēwhairangi. I te kakari tuatahi, ka riro te tāhuna i te Māori, ka raru te taha o Ingarangi, ahakoa ngā kōrero rerekē a te taha Ingarihi. I hangaia e Kawiti tētahi pā ki Ōhaeawai. He mea āta hanga mārire te pā, ā, i tū kaha i te aroaro o ngā pū a ngā ope o Ingarangi i te 1 o Hūrae 1845. E ono ngā hōia Ingarihi ki te toa Māori kotahi, engari ka hinga te tino parekura o te taha Ingarihi. Ka mutu te pakanga mō te rima marama, ā, ka whakamātau a te Pitiroi ki te hohou i te rongo, engari kāore a Kawiti i whakaae ki ana whakaritenga mō te hounga i te rongo.

Nō te taenga mai a Kāwana Hōri Kerei i te marama o Nōema 1845 hei kaiwhakakapi mō te Pitiroi, ka whakatau a Kerei kia rima ngā rā hei whakahoki kōrero mā Heke ki ngā whakaritenga mō te hounga i te rongo, i muri ka whakaara a Kerei i tana ope e tūria ai te pā hou o Kawiti. Ka māmingatia ngā hōia o Ingarangi e Kawiti ki te pā o Ruapekapeka, he wāhi tūpoupou nei. Tata ki te marama kotahi ngā hōia 1100 e muhumuhu haere ana kia takahia te 15 māero mai i Pēwhairangi. Ka tukia te pā e Ingarangi mō te rua wiki, ki ngā pūrepo. Ka tomo ngā hōia o Ingarangi ki te pā i te Rātapu, te 11 o Hānuere 1846, engari kua mahue te pā i ngā toa o Kawiti. Kua paheno atu ētahi o ngā toa o Kawiti ki te ngahere, me kore e whai mai ngā hōia i a rātou. E 45 o te taha Ingarihi i mate, i taotū rānei, 30 o te taha Māori. Ka whakarērea te pā, ā, ahakoa ehara i te wikitōria mō te taha Ingarihi, ka noho a Kawiti rāua ko Heke ki te hohou i te rongo i te mutunga o te marama o Hānuere. Ko ēnei toanga i hua ake i ngā pūkenga a Kawiti ki ngā tikanga kawe riri me tana mōhio ki te hanga pā tūwatawata me ōna maioro.

Ka mate a Kawiti i Waiomio i te 5 o Mei 1854.

People: 
Ordered by: 
Kahutia, Riperata
First Name: 
Riperata
Surname: 
Kahutia
Birthdate Unknown: 
1838/39?
Died Unknown: 
1887
Biography: 

Riperata Kahutia (1838/39?–1887) was born in Poverty Bay. She belonged to the Te Whānau-a-Iwi hapu (subtribe) of Te Aitanga-a-Māhaki. Her father, Kahutia, was a principal leader in the Tūranga (Gisborne) area. When he died in about 1860 Riperata Kahutia inherited his mana within Te Aitanga-a-Māhaki.

Riperata Kahutia later became a well-known figure in the region through her claims in the Native Land Court and the Poverty Bay Commission. The Commission was set up to return land titles to Māori such as Riperata who had remained ‘loyal’ to the Crown during the wars of the 1860s. She succeeded in gaining title to large areas in many land blocks for herself, her whānau (extended family) and her tribe. She was one of the principal owners of the Tūranganui No. 2 block, sold to the government in 1869 to provide land for the township of Gisborne.

In the early 1880s Riperata played a role in the cultural revival of her people after the destructive wars of the 1860s. She established a marae named Te Poho-o-Materoa on her Awapuni land. The ridge-pole was presented by Horonuku Te Heuheu of Ngāti Tūwharetoa.

Riperata died at the age of 48 in 1887 from tuberculosis, soon after the marae was opened. One of her daughters, Hēni Materoa, married James Carroll, the long-standing Liberal Member of Parliament for Eastern Maori and Minister of Maori Affairs between 1899 and 1912.

Adapted from the DNZB biography by R. De Z. Hall and Steven Oliver

Riperata Kahutia

Ka whānau a Riperata Kahutia (1838/39?-1887) ki Tūranganui-a-Kiwa. Ko Te Whānau-a-Iwi te hapū, ko Te Aitanga-a-Māhaki te iwi. He rangatira tōna matua a Kahutia i te rohe o Tūranga. Ka mate ia i te tau 1860, ka riro tōna mana i a Riperata Kahutia i roto i a Te Aitanga-a-Māhaki.

Whāia, ka rongo te rohe katoa mō ngā kerēme a Riperata ki te Kōti Whenua Māori me te Kōmihana o Tūranganui-a-Kiwa. I whakatūria te Kōmihana ki te whakahoki whenua ki ngā Māori i pūmau ki te Karauna pērā i a Riperata Kahutia i ngā riri i te tekau tau atu i 1860. Ka hua ana mahi ki roto kōti, ka whai taitara a ia ki te whenua nui mōna, tōna whānau, tae atu ki tōna iwi. He nui ngā whenua o Riperata i roto i te poraka Tūranganui Nama 2, i hokona rā ki te kāwanatanga i te tau 1869 hei wāhi whakatū i te tāone o Tūranga (Gisborne).

I te tōmuatanga o te tekau tau atu i 1880 ka tahuri a Riperata ki te āwhina i te whakaoranga anō o ngā tikanga a tana iwi, whai muri i ngā putanga kino o ngā riri o te tekau tau atu i 1860. Ka whakatūria e ia he marae ki runga i ōna whenua i Awapuni, ko Te Poho-o-Materoa te ingoa. Nā Horonuku Te Heuheu, ariki o Ngāti Tūwharetoa, te rākau i tuku mai hei tāhuhu mō te whare.

Ka mate a Riperata i te mate kohi i te tau 1887, whai muri iho i te whakatuwheratanga o te whare. E 48 ōna tau. Ka moe tētahi o ana tamāhine, a Hēni Materoa i a Timi Kara, te Mema Pāremata Māori mō Te Tai Rāwhiti mō tētahi wā roa. Ko ia hoki te Minita mō ngā Take Māori atu i te 1899 ki te 1912.

People: 
Ordered by: 
Kaihau, Henare
First Name: 
Henare
Surname: 
Kaihau
Birthdate Unknown: 
1854-60
Died Unknown: 
1920
Biography: 

Henare Kaihau, of Ngāti Te Ata, was born some time between 1854 and 1860 on the southern Manukau Harbour. In his youth he acquired a vast knowledge of tribal tradition and whakapapa. By his mid-twenties he had become deeply interested in Māori politics. Later he strongly supported the King movement, and was a principal adviser to Mahuta, the third Māori King.

He was elected to Parliament representing the Western Māori electorate in 1896. One of his first actions was to introduce the Māori Council Constitution Bill. Under the Bill, a Māori council of 56 members would have full authority over land and fishing grounds. It would replace the Native Land Court and make decisions on land titles. The Bill was rejected.

Throughout his remaining 15 years in Parliament Kaihau spoke on many issues – calling for Māori Treaty rights to fish and native game, opposing Māori land legislation that reduced Māori control and ownership of their lands, and constantly seeking compensation for confiscated Waikato land.

At the start of the twentieth century he became deeply disillusioned by what he saw as Parliament's lack of commitment to Māori issues. He focussed on re-establishing the Māori Kotahitanga Parliament under the Māori King. The Kotahitanga movement, which had declined after 1900, had sought implementation of the Treaty of Waitangi, repeal of the native land laws and a measure of Māori independence.

Large hui (meetings) were held in 1907, but Kaihau was unable to break down either the division among Kingitanga members, or their suspicion of tribes outside it.

In 1908 Waikato leaders sold or leased land to raise funds for the development of a township at Ngaruawahia. Kaihau's involvement in these transactions led to accusations of financial impropriety. Later he was also accused of accepting payment from electors for his work on petitions, and of taking fees for facilitating land purchases. Parliament's Speaker investigated, and supported the charges. But there was no penalty because Standing Orders in Parliament were not translated into Māori, and according to the Speaker, Kaihau might not have known that he was acting improperly.

After this the King Movement withdrew its support. Kaihau lost his seat in Parliament and was replaced by Maui Pomare. He died in 1920.

People: 

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