Pohutukawa trees

The pohutukawa tree (Metrosideros excelsa) with its crimson flower has become an established part of the New Zealand Christmas tradition. This iconic Kiwi Christmas tree, which often features on greeting cards and in poems and songs, has become an important symbol for New Zealanders at home and abroad.

In 1833 the missionary Henry Williams described holding service under a ‘wide spreading pohutukawa’. The first known published reference to the pohutukawa as a Christmas tree came in 1857 when ‘flowers of the scarlet Pohutukawa, or “Christmas tree”’ formed part of table decorations at a feast put on by Ngāpuhi leader Eruera Patuone. Several years later Austrian geologist Ferdinand von Hochstetter noted that settlers referred to it as such. The pohutukawa, he observed, ‘about Christmas … are full of charming … blossoms’; ‘the settler decorates his church and dwellings with its lovely branches’. Other 19th-century references described the pohutukawa tree as the ‘Settlers Christmas tree’ and ‘Antipodean holly’.

In 1941 army chaplain Ted Forsman composed a pohutukawa carol in which he made reference to ‘your red tufts, our snow’. Forsman was serving in the Libyan Desert at the time, hardly the surroundings normally associated with the image of a fiery red pohutukawa tree. Many of his fellow New Zealanders, though, would have instantly identified with the image.

Today many school children sing about how ‘the native Christmas tree of Aotearoa’ fills their hearts ‘with aroha’.

Pohutukawa and its cousin rata also hold a prominent place in Maori tradition. Legends tell of Tawhaki, a young Maori warrior, who attempted to find heaven to seek help in avenging the death of his father. He fell to earth and the crimson flowers are said to represent his blood.

A gnarled, twisted pohutukawa on the windswept cliff top at Cape Reinga, the northern tip of New Zealand, has become of great significance to many New Zealanders. For Maori this small, venerated pohutukawa is known as ‘the place of leaping’. It is from here that the spirits of the dead begin their journey to their traditional homeland of Hawaiki. From this point the spirits leap off the headland and climb down the roots of the 800-year-old tree, descending into the underworld on their return journey.

Community contributions

38 comments have been posted about Pohutukawa trees

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Posted: 14 Sep 2018

The pōhutukawa tree has become an ingrained part of New Zealand’s culture, particularly when thinking of summer and christmas time. Another interesting facts to read: https://a1sureservices.co.nz/pohutukawa-new-zealands-christmas-tree/


Posted: 14 Dec 2016

Thanks, Craig - good sleuhing! We have updated the text now. Regards, Jamie Mackay


Posted: 12 Dec 2016

"The first recorded reference to the pohutukawa as a Christmas tree came in 1867..."

I've come across an earlier reference, this one from the 'New Zealander', dated Dec 30 1857, about a gathering of various iwi for Christmas dinner:



Posted: 01 Dec 2016

In the Netherlands it is a conservatory plant and ee grow it in normal potting soil. In some greenhouses they stay in the soil in the greenhouse. They blooms abundant.


Posted: 14 Oct 2016

Buenos días, me podrían decir por favor a que temperatura puedo hacer germinar las semillas de pohutuwa. Soy de america del sur.

Judith Doyle

Posted: 28 Nov 2014

Yes, I know that the hanging roots of pohutukawa are aerial roots ---also known as adventitious roots, as you've said here. And that some pohutukawa trees are more prone to producing them than others.

BUT WHY do some pohutukawa feel they need aerial roots? What use are they?


Posted: 17 Aug 2014

The pohutukawa trees at the bottom of my garden on the banks of the manakau which is council land in Onehunga appear to be ill. Branches are falling off and they did not flower last summer. I have not seen any possums recently. New seedlings are growing further inland. [ Between the Manakau and the house.] The one beside the house seemed almost to appear as a biggish tree overnight


Posted: 27 Jun 2014

We have huge NZ Xmas tree in our garden but it has developed a lot of die back on the leader that is on the south western side but the rest of the tree still looks ok at present moment It has always been very healthy but we did have very strange weather in Sydney in April and May which were the hottest on record. Does anyone know if there are any diseases that cause die back very quickly.


Posted: 06 Oct 2012

My daughter has several of the pohutukawa trees on her land and the roots are damaging the drains can you do what is called root trimming and copice the top of the trees to restict root growth ? can anyone help me with what to do as i believe these trees are protected.


Posted: 16 Jun 2012

Just curious... as a recent visitor to Whangaroa I observe many of the ancient and middle age pohutakawa are exhibiting general 'distress'.
Some could be 200 years old. Some canopies in pekapeka bay are totally dead near sea level?
Not possums eating them.
Is it a soil disorder? Some new toxin in the water/environment?
Occasional trees remain in fine health but the majority look under duress.
Any feedback please.