New Zealanders who resisted the First World War

Page 2 – Imprisoned conscientious objectors, 1916-1920

This table and related spreadsheet lists the 286 conscientious objectors who were imprisoned for rejecting military service during the First World War. The spreadsheet lists the dates they were balloted, sentenced and released, and provides other biographical and procedural information. It also records their reasons for rejecting military service, where this information is available. Download full spreadsheet here.

Abbreviations: R = religious; S = socialist; R, S = religious and socialist; I = Irish nationalist; S, I = Irish and socialist; DNS = ‘defiant’, but not categorised specifically; NAR = not a reservist (i.e., claiming citizenship of another country); M = part of the Waikato group who collectively rejected Māori conscription; CO = conscientious objector; DO = defiant objector; RO = religious objector. Read more about the compilation of this list.

NameOccupationAddressDOBType of objection (balance of evidence)
Adin, FrederickFlax handFoxton1896S
Adin, HenryContractorFoxton1890S
Aicken, Isaac SamuelFarm labourerLowcliffe Hinds1884R
Aiken, Owen JohnFarm labourerCambridge1886R
Aitkenhead, Herbert StanleyFlaxcutterShannon1888DNS
Alderson, Norman RobertClerkOtaitai Bush, Riverton, Dunedin1897R
Allely, Brian AndrewEngineerAvondale1897R, S
Anderson, Frederic WilliamCarpenterWellington1881R
Anderson, Henry Alfred DrummondShift-foremanWaihi1876R
Arthur, RonaldFarmerCheltenham, Feilding1894R
Ash, Henry CharlesFarm handMataroa1897R
Badger, Wilfred SmithLand salesman and farmerHawera/ Bulls1883R
Ballantyne, Garth CarsleySurveyor's cadetWellington1896R, S
Banks, David AKA David Martin BanksCivil and military tailorWellington1886R, S
Batten, Allan PercyBroom makerAuckland1896DNS
Batten, Louis BeerCutterOnehunga1894I
Batten, Samuel WainPaper cutterAuckland1872R
Baxter, AlexanderLabourerBrighton Otago1894R
Baxter, Archibald M LFarmerBrighton Otago1881R
Baxter, DonaldFarm labourerBrighton Otago1891R
Baxter, HughFarm workerBrighton Otago1887R
Baxter, JohnLabourerBrighton Otago1877R
Baxter, WilliamLabourerTiroiti, Kokonga; Brighton Otago1890R
Beaton, AlisterLabourerManawatu; Oamaru1882R
Bell, Norman MurrayTeacherChristchurch 1887R, S
Bennett, John HenryFarm labourerAuckland1881R
Bentley, Thomas Atkinson AKA BentlyDraperDargaville1882R
Billings, George ErnestElectrical engineerAuckland1892R
Billings, Joseph SidneyDrainerAuckland 1890R
Blade, Hugh RobertEvangelistThorpe, Nelson1884R
Blanchard, ArthurFarmerPaerata1894R
Blanchard, Henry GeorgeCarpenterPaerata1896R
Bland, HerbertFarmerRukuhia1886R
Blundell, Hugh KingFarmerWaitakarua, Thames1884R, S
Borrows, ArthurRailway employeeChristchurch 1878S
Bowrey, Ernest Harold AKA Edwin BirdFarm handMoawhango, Taihape1893NAR
Bradley, AndrewMilkerFoxton1897S
Bradley, Roy Ormond YorkStoremanChristchurch 1895R
Brailsford, John AnnesleyJournalistLower Hutt1883R
Briggs, MarkAuctioneerPalmerston North1884S
Brosnan, DanielLabourerManunui1887I
Brosnan, TimothyLabourerWinton, Owhango1882I
Broughton, Keith HamiltonFarmerWaireka, Canterbury1892R
Bryant, HenryWharf labourerWellington1877S
Burgess, KennethFarm labourerTangiwai1893DNS
Calpin, JamesLabourerWairoa1875S
Campbell, HughUnion secretaryAuckland1882S
Carian, GeorgeLorry driverPalmerston North1893S
Christian, DonaldFarmer/ PloughmanWaimate/ Tadmor1896R
Church, Albert Edwin JohnFarmerGreendale, Selwyn Forks1894R
Church, FrederickFarmerGreendale, Selwyn Forks1885R
Clapham, James WilfredTeacherPalmerston North, Hastings1885R
Clark, Louis AKA Mackay, LambFarm labourerWellington1888NK
Cochrane, Ernest SamuelPlumberGreymouth1892DNS
Cody, JohnFarmerRiversdale1892I
Cody, LawrenceFarmerRiversdale1890I
Cody, PatrickFarmerRiversdale1885I
Coffey, Thomas GeorgeLabourerWellington1893I
Cole, Alfred FrankExchange clerkPalmerston North1897S
Collins, ThomasGas stokerAuckland1891R
Conway, EdwardFreezerCastlecliff1891NK
Craig, John McNabEvangelistBainham1886R
Cunningham, AnthonyLabourerTimaru/ Wairoa, Hawkes Bay1891DNS
Dagleish, AnthonyLabourerWellington1881DNS
Davey, Wilfred JamesClerkAuckland, Palmerston North1897R
Davidson, William ErnestTeamsterChristchurch/ Gisborne1885R
Day, Douglas HenryFarm labourerChristchurch 1885R
Dixon, Thomas Perrin AKA DicksonFarmerOkaihau, Bay of Islands1895R
Dodge, Frederick ErnestTravellerChristchurch 1888R
Dodge, Percy ClarenceBricklayerChristchurch1892R
Doherty, Charles WentworthPloughmanOamaru1885R
Donovan, William BertramFlaxcutterTaumarunui1882DNS
Doody, MichaelFlaxmill hand/farmerTokomaru1880DNS
Downing, Stanley RobertSaddlerAvondale1895S
Dowsett, Edward HenryElectrical engineerAuckland1892R
Driscoll, Thomas MichaelFlax cutterMotoua1888I, S
Drumm, Edward ThomasLabourerAuckland1897I
Duke, Joseph WalterPlaster workerAvondale; Pukekohe1890R
Duncan, JohnBlacksmithFeatherston1890R
Eeles, George FrederickElectricianAuckland 1883P
Ellman, HenryLabourerChristchurch 1878R
Enoka, Tiri AKA TeriFlax mill handTuakauUnknownM
Farrand, George ArthurFarmerKumeu1880R
Farrand, Robert AlfredFarmerKumeu1883R
Foley, LawrenceLabourerWairoa, Hawkes Bay1891I
Forlong, Douglas GordonShoer and ploughmanBunnythorpe1896R
Forlong, GordonShearerBunnythorpe1897R
Fountain, Stanley FrederickLabourerCoalgate/ Pembroke (Wanaka)1891DNS
Fowler, Thomas EdwardFarm workerClaremont, Timaru1895R
Fox, CharlesWharf labourerWellington1881S
Fraser, AlexanderLabourerWellington1877S
Gadd, RichardBlacksmithChristchurch 1887NAR
Gavin, Thomas JamesGoldminerTe Aroha1890I, S
Gear, JeremiahBoot salesmanDunedin1883NK
Gill, EgertonAccountantAuckland 1878R
Gill, PercyElectrical engineerAuckland1883R
Goldsbury, Noel AccountantChristchurch 1884R
Goodson, CorneliusFlaxmillerMoutea, Shannon1891S
Gould, Robert AKA Robert John FishermanWellington1882S
Goulding, John BainFarmerWaimangaroa1883R
Gray, David RobertFarm handLowcliffe Hinds1894R
Gray, Hugh RadfordFarmer/ SeamanOhonga, Great Barrier1894S
Gray, JohnFarm handColdstream, Canterbury1885R
Gray, William GeorgeFarmerLowcliffe Hinds1887R
Greenhill, Walter Raymond OsborneGrocer's assistantPalmerston North1892R
Gunn, DanielLabourerAuckland1882R
Gunter, CharlesLabourer/gas company employeeChristchurch1895S
Halkett, Roland Gordon AKA HackettLabourerGisborne/ Tokomaru Bay1890DNS
Halse, Frederick JohnShop assistantPetone/Weber1896R
Hannam, EdwardCarpenterChristchurch 1892S
Harding, Alfred WilliamWaterside workerWellington1888S
Harland, Thomas PercyMusical instrument tunerDunedin1873R
Hayden, William HerbertElectric linemanRotorua1885DNS
Hedley, SmithFarmerRukuhia1873R
Henderson, Andrew KennawayArtistChristchurch1878R
Herbert, Frederick GuyFarmerPukekohe East1891R
Higgins, EugeneMiner/ LabourerWestport/ Wanganui1884DNS
Hiko, JoeLabourerRangiriri, WaikatoUnknownM
Hill, William Charles FrederickGardenerChristchurch1876DNS
Hodgins, ForbesFarm labourerMatangi, Rukuhia, Wellington, Hamilton1883R
Hoera, GeorgeSecretaryMercer1888M
Hogan, Joseph StanleyCarpenterMatangi/ Matamata1891R
Holroyd, MorrisPoultry farmerDunedin1889R
Holtham, John ErnestEvangelistWellington/ Christchurch1886R
Hopkins, HowardSalesmanNelson1887R, S
Hopkins, RichardPloughmanOtokia, Otago1890R
Horne, Hope WhitfieldHardware salesmanChristchurch 1897NAR
Hussey, John JosephMinerWaiuta1888S
Ireton, Thomas HowardFarm handWellington/ Wairarapa1896R
Isaachsen, Adolf Olaf AKA IsaacksenTeacherTutamoe, Hokianga1893R
Ivin, Robert JohnFarm labourerJohnsonville1893R
Jeffreys, Archibald JosephFlax workerTokomaru1886S
Jessup, Lionel GeorgeLabourerAuckland1876S
Johns, Arthur ErnestMusic teacherAuckland1887R
Jones, Donald AllenBank tellerHastingsInformation refusedR
Jones, Joseph HerbertLabourerWellington1886S
Jordan, HenryMechanicChristchurch 1886I
Joyce, Albert EdwinLabourerColdstream, Hinds1894R
Kalson, MauriceCarpenterAuckland1882R, S
Kells, Thomas Henry AlbertFarmerManawaru, Te Aroha1896R
Kelly, WilliamLabourerHari Hari, South Westland1886NK
Kiely, Thomas AKA Thomas BonifaceTailorGreymouth1889I, S
Kilby, ErnestCarpenterWellington1891R
Kilby, Herbert CharlesPainterWellington1888R
King, HughPolish makerWellington1887R
Kirwan, Lawrence JosephPlumberHokitika1891I
Knape, Reuben PercyGoldminerWaihi1896S
Kuri, HuruFarmerRaoraekauere, Aotea1884M
Lamb, Arthur JohnButcherAuckland1891R, S
Levett, Henry JamesBuilderMatainui, Westland1886R
Little, WilliamMinerHikurangi1895S
Lloyd, George HubertLabourerOhakune1888I
Lloyd, Joseph JamesEntertainerRaetihi, Port Awanuic1877I
Logan, ThomasButcher/ ScutcherShannon1886S
Lynch, MartinCookGisborne1892I
Macrae, Fergus AlexTeacherRotorua1892S
Macrae, Roderick AllenFarmerMareretu1887S
Maddren, William ArnoldBrass finisherChristchurch 1897S
Maguire, DanielLabourerFoxton1894I
Malley, WilliamDrainerMotua, Manawatu1879I
Mangan, DenisLabourerInvercargill/ Taringamotu1881I
Marshall, Francis AKA FrankLabourerTinui1887NK
May, AlexanderFarmerDunedin1881S
McCormack, Charles KennedyPloughmanAuckland, Wanganui1896R
McCormack, Duncan McNeilDraughtsmanAuckland Information refusedR
McCormack, James BauchopCarpenterAuckland1898R
McDonald, Jasper SamuelBlacksmithKarioi, Waimarino1881S
McFarland, Athol GordonBank clerkAuckland1897R
McIntyre, Arthur Charles NevilleDraughtsmanChristchurch 1879R
McKee, Owen James FrancisYardmanChristchurch 1882S
McKenzie, JamesFlaxcutterTokomaru1874S
McKenzie, WilliamFlaxcutterTokomaru1885S
McLean, JohnStone masonMoutoa, Foxton1883S
McMillan, JosephLabourer/ FruitererChristchurch 1887R
Melvin, Horace VernonMerchant's storemanWanganui1894R
Metcalfe, JosephDairy FarmerOtatara, Southland1884I
Mills, Thomas AlexanderClerkWellington1896R
Moffatt, Henry StephenWaterside workerWellington1884S
Money, FrankFarmerTatuanui, Thames1885R
Morgan, Bertie WilfredEvangelistAuckland, Christchurch1884R
Morley, JosephCarpenterAuckland1897R
Morris, Alfred JamesMill handRaetihi1880R
Morris, Jesse SamuelFarm labourerOtokia, Otago1882R
Morrish, Rhys TudorFarmerOwaka, Otago1880R
Motu, TameFarmerMercerUnknownM
Moye, JamesEngine driverWellington1881S
Moynihan, ThomasGoldminerKumara1889DNS
Munns, Ernest Edward AKA W.E. MunnsSalesmanChristchurch 1881R
Murphy, Daniel FrancisFarmerRawe Rawe, Hauraki Plains1886R
Murrane, Edward MortimerFrench-polisherTe Kuiti/Christchurch1895I
Nixon, John HenryFarm labourerClaremont, Timaru; Pleasant Point1898R
O'Brien, JamesSurfaceman/ LabourerStratford1875I, S
O'Brien, JasperFarm labourerPuketapu/ Napier1873R
O'Brien, MichaelLabourerTokomaru1875I
O'Connor, MichaelContractorWairoa1882I
Olley, John RemesesTeacherHastings1887R
Osborne, Ambrose JamesBoot makerWellington1887I, S
O'Sullivan, TimothyLabourerMarumaru, Wairoa, Hawkes Bay1895I
Page, Robert OwenStudentChristchurch1898R
Pallesen, FrederickShepherdKai Iwi1888R
Pallesen, HarryDairy FarmerHopelands, Woodville1891R
Palmer, Alexander Richard Job AKA Richard AlexanderFarmingAwahou, Raumai1891R
Palmer, Sydney AmbroseFarmerRaumai, Pohangina1893R
Pankhurst, James AlexanderDairy FarmerHekeia, Riverton1882R
Parsons, Alphonsus HughLabourerTe Kopuru1882DNS
Paterson, John FraserCoal and gold minerAuckland/ Waihi1884S
Patton, HenryFarmerCobden1878S
Patton, Robert ClaytonFarmerMt Somers, Ashburton1886R
PauLabourerMaungatautari, CambridgeUnknownM
Penwright, Lewis EdwardMinerNelson Creek1888R
Pethybridge, WilliamFarmerKeretaki, Dannevirke1890R
Philips, HetaFarmerHurunui, TaranakiUnknownM
Phillips, Robert HoraceFarmerMotau, Taranaki1895R
Phillips, Thomas HubertCarpenterWaiwhiu, Rodney1892NK
Pickering, JamesFarmerPurakanui1884R
Plews, Frederick PeterEvangelistStratford1892R
Plews, Henry George LathamDairy FarmerTuna, Midhurst1894R
Pollock, GlenPork butcherFeilding1878R
Poroa, HoaniFarmerTahaia, Otorohanga1894M
Pottinger, John WilliamFishermanWellington1885R
Puke, TakeFarmerNgaruawahiaUnknownM
Puruhau, HinaFlax cutterHauturu1896M
Quartermain, George ErnestPainterChristchurch 1880S
Rankin, HarryFarmerKakaramea1896R
Read, Charles WilliamFarmerLevin1892R
Read, Stanley BenjaminFarmerLevin1895R
Read, William JosephLabourerLevin1898R
Reynolds, Henry WilliamBootmakerChristchurch1870P
Roberts, James HenryMechanical fitterChristchurchNKS
Roberts, JohnPresserChristchurch 1887S
Robertson, Colin RobertBoot operatorAuckland1890S
Robertson, William RoyLabourerAuckland 1892R, S
Robinson, FrankIronmoulderChristchurch 1880S
Robinson, Lancelot ReevesBookkeeperChristchurch 1891R
Robinson, Walter EdwardFarm HandRakaia1887R
Rogers, John WilliamCabinet makerRona Bay, Wellington 1875R
Rogerson, FrankBoot clickerChristchurch1896S
Ross, Louis GeorgeCoach painterAuckland1887S
Ryan, William MichaelFarm labourerLongbeach, Ashburton1890I
Salter, Samuel EdmundWatchmakerWellington1891R
Samms, George WearsIronmoulderChristchurch 1883S
Sanderson, Albert ErnestLabourerAuckland 1877R
Saunders, JamesSurfacemanHunterville/ Dunedin1879R, S
Schultz, George LeopoldHairdresserWellington1884DNS
Sheehan, John PatrickWharf labourerWellington1881I
Sherrock, AlexanderLabourerRangitane, Longburn1880S
Shivers, JohnLabourerOwhango1889DNS
Skinnon, PatrickEngine driverKumara1880DNS
Stapleton, SidneyLabourerRaetihiUnknownDNS
Steele, Charles St ElmoMilkerOtakeho1896R
Stockdill, RobertFarmerAshburton1896R
Stone, Richard AbrahamSalesmanAuckland1890R
Stott, Harold AKA Harry AKA Harry AlbertTraveller/ Indent agentHastings/ Auckland 1892R
Strong, Samuel AKA Strange/StrongeFarmer/ GardenerWellington/ Palmerston1885R
Struthers, Thomas BrownTeamsterKaiapoi Island1897R
Stubberfield, JohnMechanicChristchurch1881R
Sullivan, Daniel ThomasBushfellerGreymouth1883S
Sumner, FrancisMilkerFeilding1884R
Tapara, TaeFarmerHangatikiUnknownM
Tarbutt, RalphWatchmakerAuckland/ Hamilton1881S
Taylor, Samuel RichardFarm handKimbolton1885R
Te Reinga, Pita AKA Te RuingaFarmerTe Whea-a-tainui, WaikatoUnknownM
Toto, TimiFarmerHapuakohe, WaikatoUnknownM
Urquhart, Henry RitchieTeacherAuckland1880R
Vallance, JamesEvangelistChristchurch, Auckland 1881R
Varnham, Arthur HenryCarpenterAuckland1882R
Virtue, William ThomasBasket makerChristchurch 1883S
Walker, JamesFarmerMaungakaramea1887R
Walker, James Smyth AKA SmithLabourerChristchurch 1876S
Warden, Charles EdwardClerkChristchurch 1879R, S
Watchorn, Stanley CharlesShearer and farm handStratford1895R
Watson, Cedric AndrewSchool masterWaikokowai, Huntly1894R
Webb, Patrick CharlesMember of ParliamentWellington1884S
White, WilliamBushmanRaetihi/ Ohakuna1877S
Wiki, TameFarmerMercerUnknownM
Williams, DavidFarmerPatetonga, Hauraki  Plains1882I, S
Williams, Edward ReginaldFarm handOhoka, Canterbury1892S
Wilson, HarryFreezerWellington1889S
Wix, John Edward BurnettFarm labourerMihiwaka, Otago1897R
Woods, Leon JohnBarmanAuckland1893S
Woods, Stanley EricTeacherNewborough, Oamaru1898R
Worrall, James KirkwoodPlumberChristchurch 1892S
Worrall, WilliamAccountantChristchurch 1889S
Wright, HaroldOrchardistEpsom, Auckland 1889R
Wright, Percy GuyFruit growerEpsom, Auckland 1889R
Young, William JamesLabourer/ StevedoreChristchurch1881R

About this list

These notes relate to the expanded information available in the spreadsheet version of this list.

Methodology

There is no single published or archived source which lists all imprisoned objectors, so I have used several sets of data to provide as complete a picture as possible of all the New Zealanders imprisoned for rejecting military service during the First World War.

The only published list of military objectors was created by Harry Holland for his book Armageddon or Calvary, published in 1919. Holland readily admitted that his list was based on incomplete and shaky data, but it nonetheless provides a useful starting point for anyone attempting to trace imprisoned objectors. He listed 281 names, dividing them into religious, socialist, Irish, pacifist and ‘other’ objectors, or some combination thereof.

The key archival source for studying individual objectors is the report of the Religious Advisory Board, which interviewed all objectors then imprisoned across the country between January and March 1919. Their goal was to identify ‘genuine’ religious objectors and omit these from a forthcoming list of military defaulters. The board interviewed 273 men, but of course no objectors who had already been released from prison. All those interviewed were named and categorised, though the board regarded some of the 273 as falling outside their brief.

Several other surviving lists compiled in 1917 or 1918 document the men in prison at the time and – in some cases – their motivations for refusing service. The New Zealand Police Gazette’s monthly returns of individuals released from prison provide a useful additional source, detailing sentencing, imprisonment, occupation, year of birth, and other useful information.

I collated these sources and cross-referenced them against personnel files, where these have been preserved, and articles about appeals hearings and courts martial published in newspapers that have been digitised on the Papers Past website.

This exercise involved the development of criteria for inclusion. A conscripted man who was imprisoned after he refused to be medically examined, or to accept the issue of kit at camp, was clearly an objector to military service by any definition. A man who opted out of the process by hiding in the West Coast bush was – by the Defence Department’s definition – a defaulter or, if he had been attested for military service, a deserter, rather than an objector. If apprehended by the authorities he would be sentenced to a period in prison, but he would generally not be required to serve in the NZEF. The department categorised such men as ‘military prisoners’ but not as ‘objectors’. Ten men included in at least one of the sources mentioned above, though sometimes grouped with the objectors, should properly be considered defaulters or deserters and are not listed in this spreadsheet.

With these 10 men and a few other irrelevant or untraceable names from Armageddon or Calvary removed, the spreadsheet records 286 names – including 14 objectors called up under Māori conscription and the 14 men sent overseas in July 1917.

Regimental number

Usually their regimental number but occasionally a ballot number (which sometimes differed from this) and or the number of a disciplinary file.

Name, occupation, address

These are drawn from one or other of the various sources, such as personnel files, ballot lists, defaulter lists and archived files (variations are sometimes listed). Sometimes the address is generalised slightly (e.g., Ponsonby or Mt Albert becomes Auckland).

Type of objection/A or C classification/Defence Department classification. 

I have categorised the men’s reasons for objection to military service. The A or C column gives the reasons given in Holland’s Armageddon or Calvary, where they’re included there. His categorisation differs from that used by the Defence Department and Military Service Boards. Where Holland attributed pacifist motives, officials tended to split these into religious (i.e., pacifist because of Christian teachings) and socialist (i.e., pacifist because of political opposition to militarism, beliefs about class warfare, etc). Holland categorised other objectors as socialist, religious or ‘other’ (usually meaning that he didn’t know). As he noted in the text, he was basing his information on incomplete data, so many names are missing and some included were not actually conscientious objectors.

The Defence Department categories are slippery and not used consistently, but broad patterns emerge. The department tended to categorise eligible men who rejected military service as ‘conscientious’, ‘religious’ or ‘defiant’. Religious and conscientious usually meant much the same thing – opposition to military service because of religious belief, whether as a member of a recognised pacifist church (religious objector) or based on personal beliefs (conscientious objector). ‘Defiant’ was usually applied to people refusing military service on other grounds, such as socialist, anti-militarist or Irish nationalist beliefs, or a personal philosophy not specifically underpinned by Christian teachings. It also included those who gave no specific philosophical reason. Sometimes the same individuals were categorised differently at different times, depending on who was making the judgment and for what purpose.

In listing the departmental classification, I have given most weight to the 1919 findings of the Religious Advisory Board. This conducted the most thorough, extensive and consistent survey of the objectors, and provided the most detailed analysis of their views. This has been supplemented by the categorisations made at courts martial, which are usually listed on the court martial documents in personnel files. I have also used the returns of objectors who were in prison on or around 30 April 1918 (F2), which provide some useful supplementary information.

I have used this information to try to provide an overarching ‘Type of Objection’ based on the balance of evidence. This is not always easy, and weighing Holland’s analysis against departmental records and newspaper reports is a complex task. In some cases it is only possible to say whether a person was basically ‘religious’ or ‘defiant’, in the broadest possible terms, since this was the basic criterion employed by the department. As noted above, deciding whether someone was a ‘pacifist’ is the most complex question, since most individuals advanced arguments which could be considered pacifist in the broadest sense. The most straightforward route is to divide the objectors into religious, socialist, religious/socialist, Irish, Irish/socialist, ‘defiant not specified’, and other.

Ballot number/recruiting group/ballot division

Between November 1916 and October 1918, the government statistician conducted 23 ballots in which a total of 138,034 men were called up. The country was divided into 21 regions for this purpose:

  1. Auckland
  2. Hauraki
  3. North Auckland
  4. Waikato
  5. Wellington
  6. Manawatu
  7. Hawke’s Bay
  8. Taranaki
  9. Christchurch
  10. South Canterbury
  11. North Canterbury
  12. Nelson
  13. Dunedin
  14. Southland
  15. North Otago
  16. Clutha
  17. Bay of Plenty
  18. Wairarapa
  19. Poverty Bay
  20. Wanganui
  21. West Coast

The ballot was divided into several divisions:

1st division = single men without dependants

2a division = married men without children

2b division = married men with one child

2c division = married men with two children

Men could also be called up under sections 34 and 35 of the Military Service Act. Section 34 allowed the Defence Department to arrest men who had not enrolled and draft them straight into the NZEF without being balloted. Section 35 allowed the department to draft the sons of families in which no one had yet enlisted. Typically there was an appeal process: after some or all of the sons were called up, the Military Service Board dismissed, accepted or adjourned the claims of the individuals. Men whose cases were adjourned sine die (indefinitely) under section 35 could still be called up in a normal ballot. As section 34 and 35 men were not balloted, that column is marked NA (not applicable) in the spreadsheet. No source is known for the dates when section 34 and 35 men were called up, so I have provided the earliest known date (e.g., ‘By 01/1917’).

s34 = section 34 of Military Service Act 1916, calling up men who failed to enrol for ballot

s35 = section 35 of Military Service Act 1916, calling up multiple members of a single family

Appeal

The Military Service Act 1916 created an appeal process whereby balloted men could apply for exemption from military service on the grounds of (a) pacifist religious beliefs, (b) that serving would create personal hardship for dependants, or (c) that removing them from their work would undermine essential industry. The Military Service Boards which heard the appeals could exempt men from service outright, adjourn their calling up for a specified period, adjourn them sine die (indefinitely), or dismiss them. The appeals of the men included in the spreadsheet were, by definition, dismissed.

Several of the archived sources record whether a man appealed to be exempt, and, if so, on what grounds. Where a man has nothing recorded in this box, this information is not available. Further information about individual appeals can often be found on Papers Past.

Referred to DPS?

When balloted men failed to appear for their medical examination or at camp on the appointed date, their case was referred to the Director of Personal Services (DPS). The DPS investigated the case and referred it to the local police if he thought an arrest was warranted. While cover sheets in personnel files often note that the file has been referred to the DPS, a blank in the relevant box on the spreadsheet does not necessarily mean it was not.

Māori objectors

This column refers to Waikato Māori called up under Maori conscription in 1918. Other Māori men may have been called up under the regular ballots, but none of the other imprisoned objectors listed here are known to have been Māori.

Attested

The date a conscript filled out and signed his attestation form is provided for the purpose of individual chronology and cross-reference. Typically an individual would sign an attestation paper in the weeks following their calling up, usually before they were medically examined and before those unwilling to serve appealed for exemption. Some men refused to sign the attestation form to signal their unwillingness.  

Sentence date/sentence/charge

This information is sourced from personnel files, Police Gazettes, and in some cases the archived lists. In a few cases where incomplete information is available only in personnel files, the date may be that of the offence rather than the court martial.

Abbreviations:

Admon = admonished

AEC = attempt to escape custody

AWL = absent without leave

DLC = disobeying a legal command by a superior officer

Released from prison

Sourced from the Police Gazette.

Defaulters’ list

This is sourced from the main defaulters’ list published in the New Zealand Gazette in 1919, and amendments and deletions published over the following six years.

Notes

Other contextual information where available.

Abbreviations:

CM = court martial

CO = conscientious objector

DO = defiant objector

RAB = Religious Advisory Board, 1919

RO = religious objector

s34 = section 34 of Military Service Act 1916, calling up men who failed to enrol for the ballot

s35 = section 35 of Military Service Act 1916, calling up multiple members of a single family

Sources

Abbreviations:

A or C = Armageddon or Calvary, written by Harry Holland and published in 1919

F1 = Classification of objectors, August 1918 (AAYS 8638 AD1 box 734 10/407 pt 3, Archives New Zealand, Wellington)

F2 = Lists of military prisoners, April 1918 (AAYS 8638 AD1 box 734 10/407 pt 3, Archives New Zealand, Wellington)

NZG = New Zealand Gazette (in which ballot lists were published)

PF = personnel file, held by Archives New Zealand

PG = New Zealand Police Gazette

RAB = report of the Religious Advisory Board, 1919 (AAYS 8638 AD1 box 734 10/407/15, Archives New Zealand, Wellington)

 By Tim Shoebridge, 2016.

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