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Mangungu, 12 February 1840

At a meeting at Mangungu, Hokianga, on 12 February 1840, 64 signatures were added to the Waitangi sheet of the Treaty of Waitangi. Joseph Nias, the captain of HMS Herald, naval officer Willoughby Shortland, Anglican Church Missionary Society missionaries George Clarke and Richard Taylor, Wesleyan (Methodist) missionaries William Woon and John Hobbs, who also acted as interpreter, and G.P. Russell from Kohukohu all witnessed the signatures. The official party was led by Lieutenant-Governor William Hobson, who had come almost directly to Hokianga from the first treaty signing at Waitangi on 6 February. The several thousand Māori who assembled at Mangungu for the 12 February meeting represented many different hapū (subtribes) within the Ngāpuhi iwi (tribe).

Hobson wrote that on the morning of 12 February, ‘an unfavourable spirit prevailed amongst them’, with some openly hostile about joining the meeting. The treaty was explained by Hobson, with Hobbs translating, and then the meeting was opened to discussion. While there were only 10 speakers, many spoke more than once and the discussions went on to 6 p.m. with no resolution.

As had occurred in Waitangi, those opposed to the treaty spoke first. Their biggest issues were over the power of the governor and the security of land. For example, Pāpāhia said of Hobson, ‘He to be high, very high, like Maungataniwha and we low on the ground; nothing but little hills. No, no, no! Let us be equal; why should one hill be high and another low?’ [1] Taonui said of the land that it ‘is our father; the land is our chieftainship; we will not give it up.’ [2] Hobson made a promise at this meeting that the land would ‘never be forcibly taken’, and that the queen’s government would always act with ‘truth and justice’. [3] Finally one Christian rangatira (chief), unnamed in the records, asked for the missionaries’ opinion on the treaty. They said that it would be good for Māori. Following this, between 6 p.m. and midnight, the 64 signatures were collected. Other Māori present of lower status were not allowed to sign. The signing stalled because no gifts were being distributed among the signatories. When they were told by the official party that Hobson could be seen to be paying for signatures, some at the meeting suggested he should leave.

On 13 February there was an all-day celebration at Hōreke, a timber-milling site near Mangungu, where 3000 people feasted. Blankets and tobacco were given out, but many appeared unhappy with these gifts. On 14 February, as the official party was preparing to leave, the rangatira of two Roman Catholic hapū asked to be withdrawn from the treaty. Another hapū, backed up by a letter with 50 signatures, also asked to be removed and threw back the blankets at Hobson, saying that this was their alternative to cutting them as there were not enough to distribute. Hobson refused to remove the signatures, presumably on the basis of the English understanding that contracts cannot be revoked by only one side.

Though opposition to the Treaty of Waitangi was strongest at this meeting, those who signed at Mangungu were later the most faithful to it. Under the leadership of Tāmati Wāka Nene, Āperahama Taonui and Mohi Tāwhai. they fought against Hōne Heke Pōkai and Kawiti in the 1845–6 Northern War.

[1] T. Lindsay Buick, The Treaty of Waitangi: or, how New Zealand became a British colony, Mackay, Wellington, 1914, p. 137

[2] Claudia Orange, The Treaty of Waitangi, Allen & Unwin, Port Nicholson Press with assistance from the Historical Publications Branch, Department of Internal Affairs, Wellington, 1987, p. 64

[3] Paul Moon and Peter Biggs, The treaty and its times: the illustrated history, Resource Books, Auckland, p. 213


Signature number Click to sort this column in Ascending order Signed as Probable name Tribe Hapu
87 Hake Huke Ngāpuhi? Te Urikapana, Te Roroa, Ngāti Pou?
88 Reweri Rēwiri Te Tukiata Ngāpuhi Ngāti Korokoro?
89 Te Pana Te Pana Ruka Ngāpuhi Te Roroa
90 Hone Makinaihunga Hōne Makinaihunga Ngāpuhi Te Pōkare, Ngāti Rauawa
91 Pangari Pāngari Ngāpuhi Ngāti Hua, Te Waiariki, Patutaratara, Ngāti Whiu
92 Rangatira Pakanae? Rangatira Moetara Ngāpuhi Ngāti Korokoro, Te Hikutū, Ngāti Hau, Ngāi Tū
93 Tio Tio Te Rarawa, Ngāpuhi? Te Pouka, Ngāti Hau?
94 Karekare Karekare Ngāpuhi Te Uri-o-Hau? Ngāti Hau?
95 Tungarawa Tungarawa Ngāpuhi?
96 E Paka Paka Ngāpuhi? Ngāti Korokoro?
97 Ware Korero Te Wharekōrero Ngāpuhi?
98 Marupo Marupō Ngāpuhi Te Whānau Rara, Te Whānau Rongo, Matarahurahu, Ngāti Rāhiri, Ngāti Pou
99 Toto Toto Ngāpuhi Ngāti Korokoro
100 Toko Toko Ngāpuhi Ngāti Korokoro
101 E Po Ngāpuhi Te Hikutū, Ngāti Kerewhati?
102 Piripi Ngaromotu Piripi Ngaromotu Ngāpuhi Ngāti Pākau, Ngāti Wharekawa
103 Wiremu Ramaka Wiremu Rāmeka Ngāpuhi Ngāti Pākau, Ngāti Wharekawa
104 Wiremu Patene Wiremu Pātene Ngāpuhi, Te Rarawa Te Uri-Kōpura, Te Urimāhoe, Ngāti Tama, Te Kohatutaka?
105 Manaihi Manaihi Ngāpuhi?
106 Paratene Paratene Ngāpuhi? Te Uri-o-Hua?
107 Te Hira Te Hira Te Rarawa?
108 Turau Wiremu Wāka Tūrau Ngāpuhi, Te Roroa? Ngāti Hao
109 Te Reti Te Reti Whatiia Te Rarawa, Ngāpuhi Ngāi Tūpoto
110 Kenana Kēnana Ngāpuhi?
111 Pero Pero Ngāpuhi Ngāi Tūpoto, Ngāti Pākau?
112 Te Uruti Te Urutī Te Rarawa, Ngāpuhi Ngai Tūpoto
113 Witikama Rewa Witikama Rewa Ngāpuhi?
114 Tira Tiro Ngāpuhi Ngāti Tama, Te Whānau Puku, Te Pōkare
115 Tipane Toro? / Tipa me Toro? Tīpene Te Toro? Tīpā and Toro? Ngāpuhi Te Kapotai?, Ngāti Toro?
116 Matiu Matiu Ngāpuhi Ngāti Tama, Te Uri-o-Rorokai, Te Uri-o-Ngongo?
117 Kaihu Kaihū Ngāpuhi Te Hikutū, Ngāti Kerewhati
118 Kaitoke Kaitoke Te Whakawai Ngāpuhi Te Hikutū
119 Hua Hua Te Rarawa, Ngāpuhi Ngāi Tūpoto
120 Kiri Kotiria Kiri Kotiria Ngāpuhi Te Hikutū
121 Tamati Hapimana Tāmati Hāpimana Ngāpuhi Ngāti Matakiri?
122 Te Kekeao Paratene Te Kēkēao Paratene Ngāpuhi Ngāti Matakiri, Te Uri Taniwha
123 Taonui Makoare Te Taonui Ngāpuhi Te Popoto
124 Daniel Kahika Rāniera Kahika Ngāpuhi
125 Abraham Tautoru Āperahama Taonui Ngāpuhi Te Popoto
126 Kaitoke Muriwhai Kaitoke Muriwai Ngāpuhi Te Hikutū, Ngāti Pare, Ngāti Kawhare? Te Popoto?
127 Te Naihi Te Naihi Ngāpuhi Ngāti Uru? Te Popoto?
128 Tahua Tahua Wiremu Hopihona Ngāpuhi? Te Popoto?
129 Te Tuhu Te Tuku Ngāpuhi Te Ihutai?
130 Ngaro Ngaro Ngāpuhi? Patupō, Ngāti Toro
131 Rawiri Mutu Rāwiri Mutu Ngāpuhi? Te Ihutai, Ngāti Whiu, Ngāti Hua, Te Uri Taniwha?
132 Wiremu Whangaroa Wiremu Whangaroa Ngāpuhi, Te Roroa Ngāti Pou
133 Timoti Takari Tīmoti Tākare Te Roroa Ngāti Pou
134 Hamiora Matangi Hāmiora Matangi Ngāpuhi Te Popoto?
135 Arama Hongi Arama Hongi Ngāpuhi Ngāti Uru
136 Haimona Tauranga Haimona Tauranga Ngāpuhi Ngāti Tama
137 Te Kure Kotoria Te Kure Kotiria Ngāpuhi? Ngāi Tū?
138 Heremaia Heremaia Te Kurī Ngāpuhi? Ngai Tū?
139 Pi Arama Karaka Pī Ngāpuhi Te Māhurehure
140 Repa Mango Repa Mangō Ngāpuhi? Matapungarehu?
141 Maunga Rongo Maunga Rongo Ngāpuhi? Ngāti Uru?
142 Wiremu Manu Wiremu Manu Ngapuhi?
143 Takahorea Takahorea Ngāpuhi Ngahengahe
144 Wakanau Kawau Ngāpuhi? Te Rarawa? Ngāti Hine?
145 Mohi Tawai Mohi Tāwhai Ngāpuhi Te Māhurehure, Te Uri Kaiwhare, Te Uri-o-te-Aho, Ngāi Tūpoto, Ngāti Hau
146 Timoti Mito Tīmoti Mito Ngāpuhi Te Kohatutaka
147 Hamiora Paikoraha Hāmiora Paikoraha Te Roroa Ngāti Pākau
148 Huna Tuheki Huna Tūheka Ngāpuhi Ngāti Pākau
149 Pero Pero Ngāpuhi?
150 Wiremu Kingi Wiremu Kīngi Ngāpuhi? Te Rarawa? Ngāti Rēhia? Ngāti Korokoro?